BCA Study Material Notes Of Environmental Studies Unit 7
BCA Study Material Notes Of Environmental Studies Unit 7 : Population growth, variation among nations, population explosion, family welfare programme environment and human health human rights, value education, HIV/AIDS, women and child welfare, role of information technology in environment and human health, case studies. If you look Bca Study Material, Notes Modal papers, Sample papers, Previous papers, Examination papers, then you are on right place here also found Mock papers, Unsolved papers, Important question. if you like my web and my work then you also share to your friends, classmate and others. also you follow me link given below.
Human Population & the Environment
In order to provide uniform rights & independence. UN established a human rights commission under the president ship of Mrs. Roosvelt. UN general council on 10th Dec. 1948 adopted the declaration prepared by the commission. Thus, 10th Dec. is celebrated as human right day. The declaration has a preamble & 30 articles. For the first time it established the equality before the law along with civil & political rights of man.
The Universal Declaration of Human rights as a common standard of achievement for all people & all nations , to the end that every individual Y very organ of society keeping this declaration constantly In mind, shall strive by teaching & education to promote respect for these rights & freedoms & by progressing measures, national & international, to secure their universal & effected recognition & observance, both among the people of member stares themselves & among the people of territory under their jurisdiction.
The over or unlimited growth of population is population explosion. The population explosion in the last 50 years is a black spot on environmental factors. Expanding population or slow income growth is causing over exploitation of various resources deteriorating the environment. There is decline of per capita income. About 50 per cent population is living below poverty lines. In our country rapid escalation of population is steadily worsening employment future, massive city growth, pressure growth without managing this demographic expansion sustainable development is not possible. There is a need to strengthening of population control activities.
It is a general belief that poverty emerges form over population. The escalating population & their congregation present before the administration & the government the problem to provide them shelter, sanitation, drinking water, education, employment medical facilities etc.
Women & Child Welfare
UN (United Nations) recognized role of women in 1975 (international women year). The role of women for environment has been highlighted & appreciated in UNEP (united nations environment programmed). The role of woman is very important and crucial in all fields of life. Especially in environment management as farmers, as stock-breeders as supplies of fuel & water. Women interact very closely with the environment help in conservation & management of natural resources. History indicates that woman has very close relationship with nature. To achieve good result, all Govt. Financing agencies & local communities must keep woman as central figure In all environmental management. It is essential that role of woman must be enhanced as resources manages.
- Men & woman both are exposed to similar environmental hazards & may suffer identical health problems. The active participation of woman in such cases are justified as they from half of the affected population.
- Man & woman both are exposed to some level of pollution but due to specific physiology & other vital variations of the two sexes make woman more susceptible to the vagaries as compared to man. Thus, under such circumstances, woman participation is much more important.
- Today, woman is making headway in all walks of life. They are serving in airlines, army, police, software companies, teaching, railways etc.
Role of Information Technology in Environment & Human Health
Information technology (IT) is a methodology of system that envisages the reciprocation of information & instant communication form one place to another anywhere in the world. The information may be related to scientific researches, meteorigical data, environmental predications or human health. Important role of information technology is mainly attributed to development of World wide web (WWW).
The role of information technology is very vast in the fields of environment & human health. This has become possible by the advancements that have taken place in different fields of IT. Some of those fields are the following :
- Internet & websites.
- Computer networking
- Database, data processing methods & digital communication.
- Online IT services.
- Geographic information system (GIS)
- Remote sending information system (RSIS) etc.
There has been a dramatic reduction in doubling time of global human population. In 20th century, human population has grown much faster than ever before. Between 1950-1990, in just 40years population crossed 5 billion mark with current addition of about 92 million every year or so to say, adding a new Mexico every year. In 2000, world population was 6.3 billion & it is predicted to grow four times in next 100 years. This unprecedented growth of human population at an alarming rate is referred to population explosion.
It is causing severe resources depletion & environmental degradation. Our resources like land, water, fossil fuels, mineral etc. are limited and due to over exploitation. These resources are being exhausted.
Environment & Human Health
All living being are greatly influenced by the surrounding around them. They are influenced physically, mentally and socially also. Since the surrounding in which they live is the environment, therefore each of the environment element influences them. Hence, the air, water, forest, minerals & energy make impact on them. Similarly the factors like family structure , housing, sanitation facilities, also affect their physical & mental heath. The stress & strain of earning livelihood, social & economic support systems & the psychological bent of mind also influences their health.
It is a well-known fact that the environment directly affects the human beings. Consequently, better the quality of environment, better will be the health of mankind. If the environment is favorable, people can enjoy life utmost pleasure. However, if the environment is polluted, ir will diminish the human efficiency, will affect his/her health & will make them susceptible to illness also.
Although the environment is competent in itself to prevent & control the diseases generated yet the occurrence of diseases form it influence human health, while an enormous study can be made in this regard; yet keeping the syllabus in view, we shall restrict ourselves to the following issues only :
- Air quality & human health.
- Water quality & human health.
- Energy & human health.
- Industrialization & human health.
- Urbanization & human health.
Water Quality & Human Health
Water quality has also deteriorated considerably now. It is mainly due to sewage disposal, industrial effluents, agricultural discharges (i.e. fertilizers, pesticides etc).
- The Minamata bay epidemic caused several deaths in Sweden. Tragedy was the consequence of consumption of Hg-contaminated fish by the people. Average Hg-concentration In fishes was about 50 ppm.
- The Minamata epidemic also occurred in Japan. It was due to mercury that entered into natural water through effluents form paper & pulp industry, batteries & high intensity street lamp industries etc.
- The Yamuna river has almost turned into an open sewer (or drain) due to industrial effluents & sewage discharged into it.
Family planning is the planning of when to have children, & the use of birth control & other techniques to implement such plans. Other techniques commonly used include sexuality education, prevention & management of sexually transmitted infection, pre-conception counseling & management, & infertility management.
Family planning is sometimes used as a synonyms for the use of birth control, however, it often includes a wide varity of methods, and practices that are not birth control, It is most usually applied to a female-male couple who wish to limit the number of children they have &/or to control the timing of pregnancy (also known as spacing children). Family planning may encompass sterilization, as well as abortion.
Family planning service are defined as “educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enables individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number & spacing of their children & to select the means by which this may be achieved”.
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