BCA Study Material Notes Of Environmental Studies Unit 6
BCA Study Material Notes Of Environmental Studies Unit 6
From unsustainable to sustainable development. Urban problems related to energy. Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management Re settlements & rehabilitation of people : Its problems and concerns. Case studies. Environmental ethics : Issues & possible solutions. Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust, Case studies. Wasteland reclamation. Consumerism and waste products. Environment protection Act. Air (prevention and control of pollution) Act. Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act, Wildlife Protection Act. Forest Conservation Act. Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation. Above the information is right. you also here found Bca Study Material, Notes, Sample papers, Modal papers, Mock papers, and also Previous papers this is the best choice for students to come here on my web.
Social Issues & The Environment
The heating earth’s atmosphere due to trapped infrared rays reflected from earth surface by atmospheric gases is known as greenhouse effect. This cause global warming. The increase in temperature depends on the presence of greenhouse gases. There are CO2, CO4 , CFC & N2 O , are also known as radioactive gases as they can absorb long waves infrared radiations. The concentration of greenhouse gases is increasing appreciably & affecting global temperature due to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases is known as global warming. Clouds & dust particles also produce greenhouse effect. Hence, cloudy, dusty humid nights are comparatively warmer than that of clear, dusters, dry nights.
Anti-Green House Effect
It is a neologism used to describe two different effects, coming under the header of “The cooling effect an atmosphere has on the ambient temperature of the planet.” Anti-green house effect is only known to exist in one situation in the solar system. The conventional greenhouse effect occurs because the atmosphere is largely transparent to solar radiation but opaque to infrared. While in anti-green house effect the atmosphere because opaque to solar but lets out infrared.
Titan shows greenhouse effect as well as anti-greenhouse effect. As partially compensates for the greenhouse warming & keeps the surface approximately 90C cooler than would otherwise be expected from the greenhouse effect alone.
According to McKay at al the anti-green house effect on Titan reduce the surface temperature by 9K whereas, the greenhouse effect increases it by 21K. The net effect of the surface temperature is 12K warmer than the effective temperature 82K.
Strategy for Conservation of Wildlife
- All the possible varieties, old or new, of food forage & timber plants, livestock, aquaculture animals and microbes be conserved.
- Wild relative of all the economically important organisms be identified & conserved in protected areas.
- Critical habitats for feeding/ breeding / resting / nursing animals be protected, pollution controlled & exploitation regulated. Bilateral & multilateral agreements be made where required.
- Unique ecosystem be preserved on priority basis.
- The reproductive capacity of the exploited species & productivity of the ecosystem be determined. Exploitation should not exceed the same.
- Development of reserve or protected areas.
- Controlling introduction of alien species.
- Reducing pollution.
- Public awareness.
Acid Rain & Its Harmful Effects
Acid rain is the result of air pollution when there is a very high content of corrosive nitric acid in the clouds which come down as rain, that rain is called acid rain.
Acid rain is phenomenon occurring since the past few decades. Rain reacts with the oxides come from the industrial as well as automobiles emission. The electric power plants that use the energy produced by burning coal to generate electricity emits sulphur form coal which is converted to sulphur dioxide when it burns. The rain turn acidic due to the gases emitted by industries & automobile exhausts. These gases react under the influence of oxidants catalyze emits radiation before dissolving into water droplets & ice crystals to from dilute acid solution. This acid solution falls on the earth as rain, snow, hall, dew, fog etc.
Harmful Effect of Acid Rain
- Increase acidity of rain water causes damage to fresh water animals like fishes etc.
- Many bacteria & blue green algae are killed due to acidification of water, thus disturbing the whole ecological balanced.
- In the form of mist, it damage plant leaves.
- PH of rain water is lowered due to acid rain. It changes the rate of metabolism on animals.
- It accelerates rate of corrosion of metals.
- Acid rain dissolves salts in soil like calcium carbonate & metals like aluminum which are passed on to ponds, lakes and rivers. It has toxic effect on aquatic life.
- Corrosive damage to steel, zinc, oil-based points & automobile coatings.
- Due to acid rain, Taj Mahal may get destroyed, because it is made up of marble & acid reacts with marble to from CO2.
Water Prevention & Control of Pollution Act
The act proposed in 1974. The enactment has been made with an objective to prevent & control water pollution & also to maintain. Restore the quality of water as specified for various purpose, e.g. irrigation, fishery, drinking etc
The provisions of this act have been amended to meet the exigencies arising from time to time. This act came into existence on 12th December 1978. The act was given originally on 23rd March 1974 and later was amended in 1978. It says “An act to provide for the prevention & control of water pollution & the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water, for the establishment, with a view to carrying out the purpose aforesaid, of boards for the prevention & controls of water pollution, for conferring on the assigning to such board powers & functions relating thereto & for matters connected there with”.
Wildlife Protection Act
The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted for protection of plants & animal species. Before 1972, India only had dive designated national parks. Among other reforms, the Act established schedules of protected plant & animal species; hunting or harvesting these species was largely outlawed.
The Act provides for the protection of wild animals. Birds and plants; and for matters connected therewith or ancillary has its own thereto. It extend to the whole of India. Except the state of Jammu & Kashmir which has its own wildlife act. It has six schedule which give varying degrees of protection. Schedule I and Part II of schedule II provide absolute protection-offence under these are prescribed the highest penalties, Species listed in Schedule III & schedule IV are also protected, but the penalties are much lower. Schedule V includes the animals which may be hunted. The plants in Schedule VI are prohibited from cultivation & planting. The hunting to the Enforcement authorities have the power to compound offences under this Schedule (i.e, they impose fines on the offenders). Up to April 2010 there have been 16 convictions under this act relating to the death of tigers.
Conservation of Forests
Indian forest policy aims at 60% forest cover in hills & 20% in plains. For this sustained effort are made for forestation and reforestation. Tree plantation movement or van mahotsava is being carried out in India since 1950. Whereby both government & private agencies perform tree plantation during july & February every year. Conservation of forest aims at management of forest in such a way as to maintain them to optimum form and derive optimum sustainable benefit for present as well as further generations.
- Sustained yield block cutting.
- Fire fighting equipments.
- Control of weeds.
- Prevention of scraping & litter removed.
- Advance sylviculture.
- Supervision & surveying.
- Water shed protection.
- Alternate source of fuel for villagers.
- Chipko movement.
- Controlled grazing.
- Various forms of forestry as :
- Urban forestory
- Agro forestry
- Social forestry
- Production plantation
- Reserve forests strictly.
Rain Water Harvesting
Rain water harvesting is a technique of increasing the recharge of groundwater by capturing & storing rainwater. This is done by constructing special water harvesting structure like dug walls percolation pits, lagoons, check dams etc.
- To reduce run-off-loss.
- To avoid flooding of road.
- To meet the increasing demands of water.
- To raise the water level by recharging ground water.
- To reduce ground water contamination.
- To supply ground water supplements during lean season.
Project Tiger was launched in 1973 in India. The project aims at ensuring a viable population of Bengal Tiger in the their natural habitats and preserving areas of biological importance as a natural heritage for the people. The selection of areas for the reserves represented as close as possible, the diversity of ecosystem across the tiger’s distribution in the country. The project’s task force visualized these tiger reserves as breeding nuclei, form which surplus animals would emigrate to adjacent forests. Funds & commitments were mustered to supports the intensive program of habitat protection & rehabilitation under the project. The government has set the Tiger protection Force to combat poachers & funded the relocation of upto 200,000 villagers to minimize human-tiger conflicts.
During the tiger census of 2008, a new methodology was used extrapolating site-specific densities of tigers, their co-predators & prey derived from camera traps & sign surveys using GIS. Based on the result of these surveys, the total tigers population has been estimated at 1.411 individual ranging form 1,165 adult & sub-adult tigers of more than 1.5 years of age.
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