BCA Study Material Notes Of Environmental Studies Unit 5

BCA Study Material Notes Of Environmental Studies Unit 5

BCA Study Material Notes Of Environmental Studies Unit 5

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Environmental Pollution

Environment Pollution may be defined as undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological aspects of environmental which makes it harmful for human beings, living organism (plants, animals & microbes) and for culture aspects. Any recessive addition of undesirable materials to the physical environment (air, land and water) making it unfit for loving beings is pollution.

Environmental Pollution
Environmental Pollution

Man-made pollution is called as anthropocentric pollution. This is mainly caused by over use. Misuse or mismanagement of natural resources by men, e.g. agricultural pollution, industrial pollution etc.

Common Air Pollution And their Effects

  1. Gaseous Pollution : These are oxide of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur hydrocarbon, photo chemical oxidants and fluorides.
  • Oxides of Carbon : These are CO2 and CO.

Sources : The sources of oxides of carbon are automobiles, power house, burning of fossil fuels in house/ industries, smoking CO2 is also released through respiration in plants/ animals and decy of organic matter by microbes.

CO (Carbon Monoxide) : Colourless / odourless poisonous gas, produced by incomplete combustion of natural gas, coal and wood, vehicular exhausts are main sources.

  1. May combine with hemoglobin and reduce O2 carrying capacity, can lead to giddiness, laziness, exhaustion, cardiac disorders etc.
  2. Many person die due to the excess consumption/inhalation of CO poisoning every year form charcoal stoves/ gas heaters/coal mines etc.
  3. 10 ppm in air cause illness, 1300ppm can cased death.

CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) : It is used by green plants for photosynthesis, CO2 can be removed from air by weathering of silicate rock, forming limestone/dolomite, CO2 of air has increased 15 % in last 100 years due to burring of fuel

Effect :

  1. Causes nausea/headache.
  2. Cause green house effect.
  3. Increase In CO2 in air may caused rise in temperature which may result in melting of polar ice. Rise in ocean level/ flooding of coastal areas.
  • Oxide of Nitrogen : No (Nitrogen Monoxide ), NO2 (Nitrogen Dioxide).

Sources : It is released by chemical industries/automobile by burring of materials. NO2 is produced by atmospheric nitrogen by electrical energy of lighting/natural ionising radiation.

Effects :

  1. No reduce oxygen carrying capacity of blood.
  2. NO2 forms HNO3 with water vapour in air which is corrosive.
  3. NO2 may cause irritation of nose/eye/lungs
  4. Oxides of nitrogen cause damage to
  5. Oxides of nitrogen from PAN with hydrocarbon which may cause mutation.
  6. It can cause photo chemical smog.
  • Oxides of sulpher : SO2 (sulpher dioxide), SO3 (sulpher trioxide).

  Sources : These are produced by burning of fossil flues, thermal plants, motor vehicles, from H2S.

2. Particulate Pollutions : Industries/automobile and operation like blasting, drilling, crushing, grinding etc. Pollens, spores, cysts of organisms also act as pollutants.

These pollutants may be solid or liquid. Larger particles like sand & water droplets. Settle down in still air and are known as settle able particles. Particles like dust are small and remain in the air for a longer period and are known as suspended particles. Particles like tobacco, are very fine and do not settle and are known as nonsettleable particles.

Liquid or solid particles under 1 pm in diameter are known as fumes, aerosols, smokes. Particles more than 1 pm in diameter are called dust (solid) and mist (liquid).

3. Radioactive Pollution : These are released in air and may cause allergies and respiratory diseases. high fever. 

Control of Air Pollution

  1. Trees should be grown as they use CO2 and release O2. This helps in purification of air for human being and animals to breathe. Some plants like Pharsalus vugaris, Ficus variegate can fix CO and plants like punus, Vites, juniperus can metabolise nitrogen oxides.
  2. Good quality fuel should be used in motor vehicles for reducing air pollution.
  3. The industrial processes should be suitably modified so as to reduce air pollution. This can be done by using gravity settling tanks, porous filters, electrostatic precipitators, cyclonic separators, trajectory separators, catalytic converters.
  4. Gaseous pollutants can be controlled by combustion, absorption, absorption techniques.
  5. The use of tall chimneys can reduce air pollution at ground level.
  6. To remove particulate matter, industrial smoke should be filtered before releasing it in the atmosphere.
  7. Plants/trees should be grown around mining areas and road sides to reduce air pollution.
  8. CNG should be used to reduce air pollution.
  9. Population is one of the major cause of pollution. It should be brought under control.
  10. Nuclear explosions should be stopped or minimized.


A cyclonic storm or cyclone is an intense vortex or a whirl in the atmosphere with very strong winds circulating around it in anticlockwise direction in the northern hemisphere and in clockwise direction in southern hemisphere.

‘Cyclone’ word is derived form the greek word ‘kaklos’ meaning a circle or wheel. The tropical strom in Bay of Bengal and Arabian sea appears like colled repents of the sea hence, the name is ‘Cyclone’.

Cyclone are intense low pressure areas form the centre of which pressure increase outwards. The intensity of cyclone and strength of winds depend upon the amount of pressure drop in the centre and the rate at which it increases outwards.

Fully grown cyclones is an insolent whirl in the atmosphere 150-1000 km across. 10-15 km high. Gale winds of 150 to 250 kmph or more spiral around the centre of very low pressure area below the normal sea level pressure (less than 17 knots or <31 kmph; 1 knot = 1.88 kmph) the central calm region of the storm is known as aye ; the diameter of which varies between 30-50 km. It is region free of clouds and has light winds. Around the eye  a “ wall cloud region” of storm (50 k,) is present where the gale winds, thick clouds with torrential rain, thunder and lightning prevail. The speed of wind gradually decrease away form wall cloud region. The gale give rise to a sea with waves as high as 20 meter, swells that travels thousand of miles. The cyclone may move 300-500 km in a day and hit along the coast, bringing with it storm surges as high as 3-12 meters, leaving behind death and destruction in the coastal region.

Water Pollution & causes of Pollution

Addition of foreign substance (chemical, biological or radiological) to water or any change in its physical properties that constitutes a health harzard or otherwise makes it less fit or use is known as water pollution.

Causes of Pollution

  1. Heat and oil spills, heated effluents, synthetic detergents.
  2. DDT, BHC, PCBS, organic waste, synthetic detergents, chemicals like lead, mercury, cadmium, nitrates, nickel, arsenic etc Radioactive waste dyes, coal, acids, alkalies.
  3. Pathogens, bacteria, Viruses, helminthes, protozoa, algae, fungi, fungal spores etc.
  4. Decomposition products of animals/ plant origin.

Effects of Noise Pollution

  1. Sudden loud noise may cause constriction of blood vessels, skin becomes pale, pupil dilates, eyes close, muscle tense, B.P. increases.
  2. Also affect on secretions of ductless glands.
  3. Temporary loss of hearing. Explosions may causes deafness. Continuous exposure to high noise may cause permanent damage of the ear.
  4. Disturb sleep and proper rest of animals/human beings.
  5. Sudden noise may cause accidents.
  6. Irritation in behavior of human/animals.
  7. Stomach disorder.
  8. Damage to heart, brain and liver has been reported in animal due to prolonged noise pollution.
  9. Interferes in conversation, concentration & upsets mood.

Effects of Noise Pollution & Controls

Effects of Noise Pollution & Controls
Effects of Noise Pollution & Controls

Effect Of Soil Pollution & Control

Effect Of Soil Pollution & Control
Effect Of Soil Pollution & Control

Flood Disaster Management

  1. Structural Management

The general approach is aimed at preventing flood water from reaching the potential damage centers, which result in a large number of embankments along the various flood prone rivers. Structural measures may be grouped into the following.

(i) Dams & reservoirs.

(ii) Embankment, flood wall, sea wall.

(iii) Drainage improvement.

(iv) Channel improvement.

(v) Diversion of flood water.

(vi) Natural detention basin.

  1. Non-Structural Management

Non-structural management is aided at modifying the susceptibility to flood damage as well as modifying the loss burden. The various non-structural measures are as follows.

(i) Modifying the susceptibility to flood damages through :

(a) Flood plain management.

(b) Flood forecasting & warning.

(c) Flood proofing inducing distiller preparedness & response planning.

(ii) Modified the flood loss burden through :

(a) Disaster relief.

(b) Flood fighting including public health measures.

(c) Setting up of flood forecasting & warning services.

Different types of Floods

Different types of Floods
Different types of Floods

Earthquake & how it Happens

Earthquake is caused by a sudden slip or fault. Stresses in the earth’s outer layer push the sides of the fault together, stress builds up & the rocks slips suddenly, releasing energy in wave that travel through the earth’s crust & cause the shaking that we feel during an earthquake. Earthquake occurs when plates when plates a scrape against each other. In California there are two plates, the Pacific plate & the north American plate. The primary boundary between these two plates is the San Andreas fault, which is more than 650 miles long extends to depth of at least 10  miles. The pacific, plate grinds northwestward part, the north American plate a rate of about 2 inches per year. Parts of the San Andreas fault system adapt to this movement by constant ‘creep’ resulting in many tiny shocks & a few moderate earth tremors. In other  areas where is not constant, strain can build react earthquakes when it finally released.

Soil Erosion & the measures of soil erosion

Soil erosion is a natural process. It occurs when there is a loss or removal of layer of soil due to rain. Wind, deforestation or any other human activity. The extent of soil erosion is determined by several factors given below :

  1. Type of soil : Small grained & open structure soil erodes more than the larger gain & closed structure soil. The loam type soil erodes less, as it swells up by wetting.
  2. Ground Slope : The ground having steener slone erodes more than the ground having mild slope. It is because the infiltration on steeper ground is slow but the run-off is very fast.
  3. Intensity & Amount of Rainfall : If the intensity of rainfall is more, the soil erosion is more. This situation arises when the absorption capacity of soil is lesser as compared to heavy rainfall.
  4. Landscape & Distribution of Rainwater : If the landscape of the ground surface is such that the rainfall distributes evenly & there is not a plenty of run-off; the erosion will be less. Hence, the layer of soil is not washed away when the water moves along gradually.
  5. Mismanaged Soil Resources : The soil erosion is aggravated by following reasons also :

(i) Improper surface drainage.

(ii) Removal of forest litter.

(iii) Overgrazing by cattle.

  1. Faulty cultivation Methods : Preparing the agricultural fields along the direction of hill slopes, is undesired. These should be prepared normal to the hill slopes.

Modern Agriculture

Agriculture is the oldest & largest sector amongst. Various production sectors In the world. Over the years, there has been considerable change in the methodologies of farming. Due to advancement in technologies the early days. ‘manual farming’ has been replaced by ‘mechanized farming’. The bullock carts have been replaced by tractors, conventional wooden ploughs are replaced by metallic multi-point ploughs etc.

Modern agriculture methodologies have substantially changed the farming, crops production, harvesting & the related environmental scenario. The changed are both ways i.e. favorable & unfavorable also. Major contributions to modern agriculture practices have been brought by following machines, equipments & chemical :

  1. Mechanical factor : These are the follows :

(i) Fertilizers

(ii) Tube wells

(iii) Agricultural equipments

  1. Chemical factors : These are as follows :

(i)  Fertilizers

(ii) Pesticides.

Amongst these the contribution of mechanical factors are favorable, but those of chemical is under question. They have show both the positive & the negative effects. Whereas the chemical factors have brought as revolution in agricultural production in short duration; their long-term effects tend to be detrimental.

Importance of Pollution on public health

If the environment is polluted the health of mankind/living organism will deteriorate & they may be affected by critical diseases as given below :

  1. Air-borne Disease : These are as follows :

(a) Asthma, cough, bronchitis due to SO2.

(b) Giddiness, defects of nervous system, grametotoxicity due to Pb.

(c) Cancer, lung & kidney problem, unconsciousness due to CO.

(d) Chronic fibrosis, emphysema, bronchopneumonia due to NO & NO2.

(e) Nasal cavity, bronchitis, respiratory problems due to suspended particles.

(f) Eye watering, red eyes, breathing trouble due to smoke.

  1. Water-borne Disease : These are as follow :

(a) Cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever due to bacterial infections.

(b) Hepatitis, poliomyelitis due to viral infections.

(c) Amoebic dysentery due to protozoal infections.

The Aim of Health Education

  1. To provide Information about Health & Hygiene : It aims at acquainting the pupils & the teachers with functioning of the body. The rules of health & hygiene & the precautionary measures for warding off disease. It is to be notice of the pupils how had habits, unhygienic ways of living. Addiction to smoking & liquor & such unhealthy practices, result in evil consequences.
  2. To maintain Norms of Good Health : It helps the school authorities to keep certain norms of health in school. A number of programmers of good health develops among the pupil sufficient habits of hygienic surrounding such as cleanliness Etc.
  3. To Take Precautionary & Preventive Measure : Its aim is to take adequate precautions against contamination & Spread of diseases. So good sanitary arrangements are made urinals & toilets are kept clean. Sweeping should be a done daily, & the room & the furniture are to be kept near & tidy. The eatables in the tuck-shop are saved form files.
  4. To Take Curative Measures : Remedial action against disease is also taken< A physic medical check-up is made to check deformities. Disabilities & disease detected, & remedial measures suggested. A good number of pupils suffer form myopia. An eye-examination reveals the extent of short-sightedness. If glasses are not used in time, myopia will increase rapidly. Some pupils have bad teeth. If the suffer form pyorrhea, immediate medical treatment is needed.
  5. To Develop & Promote Mental & Emotional Health : Mental & emotional health are also equally necessary in the school health programmers. While physical health makes a physically fit, mental & emotional health enables him to maintain an even temper & happy deposition.
  6. To Develop a Sense of Divic Responsibility among pupils : This is little sense of civic responsibility in our students. They generally fail in their duty to help their fellow students in particular & other persons general. They do not come to the aid of others in time of need & alleviate their sufferings. So one of the objective of health education is to cultivate a sense of civic responsibility. Through heath education, pupils to be made conscious of social crimes, like spitting anywhere, sneezing & coughing on the face of others.

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