BCA Semester Study Material Notes of Nature of Management
BCA Semester Study Material Notes of Nature of Management :- BCA Nature of Management in modern organization. Management is much important for every organization. Nature of management study material. produce satisfying products unless they are efficiently managed. Management is an important forces for achievement of the objective of any group. BCA I -Semester Principles of Management Study material Notes In English. In this site students easy to learn and study our syllabus ccsusamplepapers provide for students Bca Study material, Notes, Modal papers, Sample papers, Previous papers, Mock papers, Unsolve question papers, Important questions. Also students save our important time to complete our syllabus to learn and give best result in exams. BCA Semester Study Material Notes of Nature of Management
Importance of Management
There is no substitute for management in modern organization. Management is much important for every organization.
e.g., “An organization may have raw material, machines human resources and other factors, but these can’t produce satisfying products unless they are efficiently managed.”
The significance of management to a business can be studied in the following ways :
- Determined of Objectives : The objective of any objective of any organization are laid down by the management. These objective are put into writing and communicated to all other in the organization. No organisation can succeed without identifying its objectives.
- Achievement of objectives : Management is an important forces for achievement of the objective of any group. The perfect combination of human and non human resources is used by the managers. They direct the activities of the individual in the use of material resources is for the achievement of predetermined goals.
- Effective Use of Resources : The role of professional managers has increased these days. They can help in the efficient use of various resources and increases the productivity of the enterprise. So, the expert managers can lead the business towards growth and prosperity.
- Co-ordinate Human Efforts : Management provides leadership and guidance to the worker. It also motivates them with the help of various incentive schemes. It shows their personal interest with the organizational objectives. This lead to better co- ordination among the human resources. This improve the health of the organization.
- Contribution in National Economic Development : Efficient management is equally important at the national level. The development of a country is dependent upon the quality of management of its resources.
If management is not efficient and cannot use the resources properly, it is a poor singn for the economy of any country. This, an efficient management is a key to the growth of economy of any country.
BCA Semester Study Material Notes of Nature of Management
- Meeting Challenges : Management is the brains of the enterprise. All the policy decision are taken by the management. So, management keeps in touch with the current environment and supplies foresight to the enterprise. It helps in predeciding what is going to happen in future and which will influence the working of an enterprise.
Importance of Management
Scope of management : Although its is difficult to precisely define the scope of management yet the following may be include in it :
- Subject Matter of the Management : The subject matter of management includes, the entire process of management viz., planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.
- Functional Areas of Management : Following are the main functional areas of management :
(a) Production Management : It deal with plant location, plant layout, work measurement, production planning, production control etc.
(b) Financial Management : It include financial planning, management of earning, capital structure, management accounting, cost control, budgeting control etc.
(C) Personal Management : It basically deals with manpower planning, job analysis, recruitment, selection, training, industrial relations, etc.
(d) Material Management : Material management include the inventory control, material control, purchasing, material handling, transportation etc.
(e) Marketing Management : It include the marketing process, marketing planning, marketing mix, market segmentation, marketing research etc.
Beside the newly development function are as like maintenance management, transport management, office management etc.
- University of Management Principles : The principles of management have universal application. It is because of the fact that latcly we have stared separated courses on hospital management, hotel management, tourism management, etc. All this widens the scope of management to a very great extent.
SOLAR CHAIN AND DISADVANTAGES
Solar chain : Solar chain is the of superior from the chief executive or ultimate authority to the lowest level in the organisation.
The line of authority is the route followed via every link in the chain by all communication which start from or go to the ultimate authority.
The principal of scalar chain recognizes the necessity of authority in the organization. It has the following advantages :
(a) There will be unity of command in the organization to organization and there will be no confusion of dual order.
(b) Delegation of authority, which is essential to organization is facilitated.
(c) The scalar chain establishes the channel through which communication will pass.
The main disadvantage of scalar chain is that communication takes too much time as the order comes from top level to bottom in the chain.
e.g., In given figure,
Gang Plank shown by the dotted line joining D and O. The gang plank allows direct link
Between two employee of different department thus facilitates quick communication.
In given figure, there are two ladder of authority : one from S to E and other from S to P, if D wants to communicate with O under the scalar chain, First of all information will flow upward from D to S through B, C, A and downward from S to O Via L, M N . Thus, communication will normally be a time consuming process. D and O should be allowed to exchange information directly by using gang plank.
Short Note on Level of Management
: The terms ‘Levels of Management’ refers to the demarcation between various managerial position in an organization, The number of management increases when the size of business and work force increases. There is a limit to the number of subordinates a person can supervise. Level of management are increased so as to achieve effective supervision.
BCA Semester Study Material Notes of Nature of Management
In most of the organization, there are generally three levels of management :
These have been shown in figure given below :
- Top level Management : Top level management of a company consists of the board of direction, the chief executive or the managing director and general managers. Top management is te ultimate sources of authority and it establishes goal and polities for the enterprises. It devote more time on the planning and coordinate functions. It is accountable to the owner of the business for the overall management. Top level management approves the decisions of the middle level management. It also issue orders and instructions and lays down guideline for the lower levels.
The role of top level management will be further clear by studying its functions which are as follows:
(a) Top level management lays down the objective of the enterprise.
(b) It prepare strategic plans and policies for the enterprises.
(c) It issues necessary instruction for the preparation of departmental budgets, schedules, Procedure, etc.
(d) It appoints the executives for the middle level.
(e) It builds and maintains relations with the outside public.
- Middle Level Management : Middle level management generally consist of heads of functional departments, regional managers, plant managers etc. They are responsible to the top level management for the functioning of their department, region or plants. They devote more time to the organization and direction function of management. In small enterprise, there is only one layer of middle level management, but in big enterprise, there may be senior middle level managers and junior middle level managers. The senior level managers include heads of production, finance, marketing and other departments.
The role played by the middle level executive is stated below :
(a) They execute the plans of the organization in accordance with the policies and directives of the top level management.
(b) They make plans for the sub-units of the organization.
(c) They participates in the employment and training of lower level managers.
(d) They evaluate the performs the performs of junior managers.
(e) They attempt to achieve coordination between different departments.
(f) They sends the program report and other important data to the top level management.
- Lower Level Management : Lower level management is also known as supervisory management because it is directly concerned with the control of the performance of the operative employees. According to R.C. Davis, supervisory management refers to those executives whose work has to be largely with personal observation and direction of operative employees. This level include supervisor, foremen, accounts officers, sales officers and so on. Lower level managers are more concerned with direction and control function of management. They devote more time on the supervision of workers. The important function of a supervisor or lower level executive are listed below :
(a) They plan and organize the activities of their work-group.
(b) They arrange for necessary material, machines, tools etc., for workers and provide them with them wit the necessary working environment.
(C) They provide training to the workers.
(d) They supervise and guide the subordinates.
(e) They solve problems of workers.
(f) They communication worker’s problem to the higher level management.
(g) They maintain good human relations in the organization.
(h) They send periodical reports about performance to the middle level management.
The Nature and Process of Management
Management : Management is an essential part of any group activity carried out to achieve certain objectives. It’s effect can be observes in all types of organizations. Decision making, planning, organization and coordination of activities and direction of people are equally important in all organization concerned with industry, education, health, etc. So, management is a universal phenomenon. All organization have certain element of management.
“Management is an executive function which is primarily concerned with carrying out the board policies laid down by the administration. It is that function of an enterprise which concerns itself with the direction and control of various activities to attain the business objective”.
-Dr. William R. Spriegal.
“Management is the task of manager to establish and maintain an internal environment in which people working together in groups can perform effectively and efficiently toward the attainment of group goals.”
-Koontz. O’ Donnel.
“Management may be broadly defined as the art of applying the economic princip;es that underlie the control of man and material in the enterprise under consideration.”
-Dr. Kimball and Kimball.
“Management is simply the process of decision making and control over the actions of human being for the express purpose of attaining predetermined goals.
“Management is principally a task of planning, coordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of others towards specific objective.”
The word management identifies a groups of people whose job is to direct the efforts and activities of other people towards certain objectives. Various definitions can be follows.
“Management is getting work done others people.”
“Management is a process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling.”
“Management is what is manager done.”
“Management represent a group of people.”
“Management is a discipline which represent a body of knowledge and practice which can be taught in educational institution.”
Feature of Management Process
- Continuous Process : Management is a continuous process, i.e., its functions are repeated time and again. It does not stop anywhere. It is not confine to handing and coordination of human resources at a particular point of time. It is an on going process of planning the activities and execution of plans through organizing, staffing, direction and controlling.
- Management is an Integration Process : the essence of management is integration of human and other resources in a manner that it leads to effective performance. It brings together physical and financial resources and leads the human resources for the efficient use of non-human resources. All these resources are properly organized and divided into various work-units for the purpose of achieving greater coordination, Management acts as the catalytic agent in getting maximum productivity of all the resources.
- Interactive Process : There is a continuous interaction between various functions of management. They are inter-dependent and inter-related. There is no rigid sequence between them. In actual practice, the manager has to perform these functions continuously to achieve the objective of the units.
- Social Process : Management handles the various input that belongs to the society for meeting the requirement of the society. It is called a social process because management has to deal with various social groups such as shareholders, suppliers, workers, customers etc.
Management is also called a social process because its major task of motivating and leading the human resources for the effective use of physical and financial resources.
- Direction : It is a very broad function concerned with the inter-personal relations. It includes communication with subordinates, providing them leadership and motivating them.
- Controlling : It refers to the comparing of actual performance with the plans or standard. If the result is not favorable then take the necessary steps.
Nature of Management
Nature of Management
The nature of management is discussed as follow :
- Management is a Process : Management is a process which consist of certain of certain functions like planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. These function require specialized knowledge and skill for their efficient performance. Continuously by the managers at all level in the organization.
- Management is Purposeful : Management is a goal-oriented activity. For instance management of a business aims to satisfy the customer, to earn profit and to increase the goodwill and the image of the business. There is no need of management, if there are no pre-determined goal or objectives.
3.Management is a Group Activity : Management is an integral part of any group activity. It involves the use of group efforts in the pursuit of well defined goals or objectives. It can not exist independent of the group or organization it manages.
- Management is a Multi-disciplinary Subject : ln Though the management is a distinct discipline, It contains principles taken from many social science like anthropology, psychology, sociology, etc. So, it is a multi-disciplinary subject.
- Management is Universal : Management is essential for effective performance of any organized activity, Thus, it is universal in nature. The principal and techniques of management have universal applications. They can be applied to all types of organization.
- Management is Intangible : The management has been called the unseen force, its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts orderliness. Informed employees, buoyant spirit and adequate work output. Thus feeling of management is result oriented. One may not see with naked eyes the functioning of management, but its results are apparently known. People often comment on the effectiveness of the management on the basis of the end result though they are incapable of observing it during operation.
- Management is Achieving Result through Others : The managers can not do every thing themselves. They must have the necessary ability and skill to get work accomplished through the effort of others.
- Management is both a Science and an Art : Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of well-defined concept, principle and technique which have wide applications. So it is a science. BCA Semester Study Material Notes of Nature of Management
The application of these concept, principle and techniques requires specialized knowledge and skill in the part of the manager, Since, the skill acquired by a manager are his personal possession, management is viewed as an arts.
A Brief Note On Management Is Both An Art And A Science.
Management is Both an Art and a Science : The controversy with regard to the nature of management, i.e., Whether it is an art or science is very old and has created a great deal of confusion. To determine whether management is an art or science we are discuss these two terms art and science.
Management as a Science: Science is a body of knowledge bases on finding and exact principles. It develops a relationship between cause and effect and its finding apply in all the situation. The basics difference between art and science is that art implies knowing how the application whereas science is concerned with knowing why.
The essential features of science are as follows:
- It is a systematized body of knowing that uses scientific methods for observation.
- The principles of science establish a cause and effect relationship between various factors.
- The principles are exact and have universal applicability without any limitations.
- The validity of scientific principles can be verified and they provide a reliable basis for predicting future events.
- The principles of science are evolved on the basis of continued observation.
Management as an art : Art is other as the systematic application of skill or knowledge in effecting accomplishment of results. It represent the method or ways of doing specific things and indicates how an objective is to be achieved.
The essential feature of art are as follows:
- It involve use of personal skill and knowledge in solving many complicated problems to achieves the enterprises objective.
- An art is an practical knowledge. It is concerned with application of knowledge. Management does not merely mean the knowledge of principles of management rather it is the application of this knowledge which makes it effective and useful.
- Management is a way to achieve desired results and these ways and methods, efficiency and effectiveness is attained through regular practice. One can not be a good manager unless he regularly practices the art of decision making.
- Every art has an element of creativity and in this sense also management is one of the most creative art as it is concerned with getting work done through and with others by motivating them to work and coordinating their activities.
Management Is A Profession : Since the emergency of separation of management from ownership and increasing professionalization of management; it is being taken as profession also. However while some fell that management is a profession, other are of the view that it is a way to be a professional.
Edgar H. Schein has compared key qualities of professional with those of managers. In particular, he notes the following three characteristics
- Professionals base their decisions as general principles.
- Professionals achieve professional status through performance.
- Professionals must be governed by strict code of ethics that protects their clients.
Mcfarland has pointed out the following characteristic of management as a profession:
- Existence of an organized and systematic knowledge.
- Existence methods of acquiring training and experience.
- Existence of an association with profession with professionalization as its goal.
- The formation of ethical for guidance and conduct.
- Charging of fees for service rendered.
Kennith Andrews identified the following characteristics of management as a profession:
- Knowledge 4. Competent application
- Self control 5. Social responsibility
- Community Sanction.
Difference between Management and Administration
A debate is often raised as to whether or not there is a different between “Management” and “Administration”. Conflicting views by various authors have led to some confusion over the use of these terms. The debate over the use of the terms management and administration has given rise to three view-points :
- Administration is a higher function, whereas management is a lower level function.
- Management is a generic term and includes administration.
- Both the terms are used interchangeably.
- Meaning : Management means getting the work done through and with others.
- Nature : Management refer to execution of decision. It is a doing function.
- Types of work : It concerned with implementation of people.
- Leading of Human Effort : It is actively concerned with direction of human efforts.
- Authority : Management has operational authority.
- Status or Level : Management is relevant at lower level of management.
- Decision Making : Management decides who shall implement the administration decision.
- Usage of Term : The term ‘Management’ is widely used in business organization in the private sector.
- Designation : General manager, managing, director, plant superintendent, branch manager controller etc.
- Influence : Administrative decision are influenced by public opinion, social forces, government policies etc.
- Meaning : Administration is concerned with the formulation of objective, plans, policies of the organization.
- Nature : Administration relates to decision making. It is a thinking function.
- Types of work : It is concerned with determination of major objective and policies.
- Leading of Human Effort : It is not directly concerned with direction of operation personnel.
- Authority : Administration has authority to tale strategic and policy decision.
- Status or Level : Administration refers to higher levels of management.
- Decision Making : Administration determines what is to be done and when it is to be done.
- Usage of Term : The term ‘administration’ is often associated non-business organization such as government departments, public enterprises, military organization, socio-cultural organization etc.
- Designation : Minister, secretary, commission, viec chancellor, registrar etc.
- Influence : Management decision are affected mainly by organization values, policies and beliefs to managers.
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