BCA Multidisciplinary Nature Of Environmental studies Study Material

BCA Multidisciplinary Nature Of Environmental studies Study Material

BCA Multidisciplinary Nature Of Environmental studies Study Material

BCA 1st Semester Multidisciplinary Nature Of Environmental studies: Study Material. In this site students easy to learn and study our syllabus ccsusamplepapers provide for students BCA Study material, Notes, Modal papers, Sample papers, Previous papers, Mock papers, Unsolved question papers, Important questions. Also, students save our important time to complete our syllabus to learn and give the best result in exams. BCA Multidisciplinary Nature Of Environmental studies Study Material

Environmental Studies

The Multidisplinary Nature Of Environmental Studies

Importance of Environmental Education

The environment belongs to all and is thus important for all, whatever be occupation or age of a person, he or she will be affected by his or her deeds. Main points of the importance of environmental education are as follows:

  1. Environmental education is important for the economy and welfare of human society.
  2. In this age of science and technology, eco-friendly technology or eco-technology knowledge and technology with modern technologies. It can be achieved only through proper environmental education.
  3. It helps us in careful handling issues like pollution menace, over-exploitation of natural resource, food scarcity, and sustainable development.
  4. Excess use of agrochemicals has degraded environment and has disturbed the ecological balance. Environmental education helps us to find way and means to maintain ecological balance.
  5. Environmental has demonstrated how a man can derive benefits from environmental without destroying it.
  6. Environmental education trains us to conserve our fast depleting natural resources.
  7. Environmental has been a source of happiness for man and imparting environmental education.
  8. Environmental education helps in including attitudes and values, conducive to environment protection and understanding of inter-dependence of nature and man.


The environment is a Greek word which means ‘surrounding’ . It is a complex of many things such as light, temperature, water, air, soil, ponds, lakes, rivers, forests, sky, and the various system=m existing in nature all of constituting the environment.

Classification Of Environment

The environment is considered as a composite term for the conditions in which an organism lives. It includes both biotic and abiotic substances, energy and forces, e.g  temperature, light, water, air, soil and other organisms, Environment can be defined in many ways some of its commonly used definitions are as follow :

  1. It is the totality of all social, biological and physical or chemical individual as well as collectively that compose the natural and man-made surroundings.
  2. It refers to the total sum of conditions which surround man at a given point in space and time.
  3. It is the representative of physical components of the earth wherein man is an important factor influencing his environment.

In general, environment can be described as the physical Surrounding and conditions affecting the lives of people and animals. It consists of the following components :

  1. Atmosphere: The atmosphere is the protective blanket of gases surrounding the earth, which sustains life on earth and saves it from the hostile environment of outer space. It absorbs most of the cosmic rays from outer space and a major portion of the electromagnetic radiation from the sun. It transmits only ultraviolet, visible, near infrared radiation and radio waves filtering out tissue-damaging ultraviolet radiation.

The atmosphere plays a key role in maintaining the heat balance on the earth, through absorption of infrared radiation emitted by the sun and re-emitted from the earth. The major components of the atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen, while the minor components are argon, carbon dioxide and some trace gases.

  1. Hydrosphere: The hydrosphere includes all types of water resources such as oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, streams, reservoir, glaciers, polar ice caps and groundwater. About 97% of the earth’s water is in the oceans, where the high salt content does not permit its use for human consumption. About 2% of the water resources are locked in the polar ice caps and glaciers, while only 1% is available as fresh water for human consumption and other uses.
  2. Lithosphere: This is the outer mantle of the solid earth, consisting of minerals occurring in the earth’s crust and the soil. The earth’s crust compares of a complex mixture of minerals, organic matter, air and water. The soil is the most important part of the lithosphere.
  3. Biosphere: This denotes the realm of living organisms and their interactions with the environment.viz., atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Both the biosphere and environment are influenced considerably by each other. Thus, the oxygen and carbon dioxide level of the atmosphere depends entirely on the plant kingdom. As a matter of fact, green plants alone are responsible for the accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere, through photosynthesis and decay, the original atmosphere having been devoid of oxygen. The biological world, in general, is infinitely related with energy flows in the environment and water chemistry.

The Need Of Public Awareness about Environment

Thoughtful and unabated consumption of natural resources for different purposes such as the development of science and technology, transport and communication, agriculture and industry, material and energy, comfort and pleasure has depleted environmental resources. it has degraded vital life supporting systems like air, water  and soil, has disturbed delicate ecological balance. Thus, to improve deteriorated environment and to avoid further pollution, being has a great responsibility. For that, they have to be conscious about environment-friendly needs. Individuals are to be involved in this process of improving the environment. As the beginning of life on earth was about 2.6 billion years ago. numerous species of organisms have evolved, flourished and vanished. Their fossils are yet to be observed to record their existence in historical past. Gradually in stages, a very large number of the organism of different shapes and sizes, colors and kinds and modes of living were evolved. Amongst them mankind becomes dominant special because of his brain.

Because of vast capabilities, multi-activities, performance, and genuine or non-genuine eagerness, mankind has been responsible for disturbing the environment. Sometimes, it may be for the sake of comfort by using air-conditioners and refrigerators, that cause ozone layer depletion and sometimes for the sake of curiosity for excellence such as by developing rocketed and made aware to protect the global environment by exercising following actions :

  1. By not cutting trees and using timber for aesthetic pleasure such as the decoration of drawing rooms and houses etc.
  2. By not extracting unnecessarily and exhaustively natural resources such as underground water, minerals, etc.
  3. By preserving greenflies on a vast area of land.
  4. By not harnessing too much energy such as form burning of fossil flues.
  5. By formulation and obeying the moral codes meant for achieving a better encirclement.
  6. By maintaining the conventional environment within seas and oceans.

Finally, People should be approaches to understand, conserve and manage the environment and its resource. Lastly, we should not forget that the preservation of the environment is crucial for the survival of living beings on earth.

Importance Of Environmental Studies

Since ancient times, the environment (that is the nature) has held in high esteem. Importance of environment studies lies in the fact that by being well-acquainted with nature one can lead a healthy, spiritual and long life. Such studies help us to maintain a good environment all through in our vicinity. The requirements of a good environment are given as follows :

  1. Pure Air: The air should be pure and free from undesired ingredients viz. harmful gases, suspended matters, etc, Generally the following limits of various ingredients are acceptable to maintain quality of air :

(a) Carbon monoxide (CO) = 1000 ug /m3

(b) Sulphur dioxide (SO2 ) = 30 ug / m3

(c) Nitrogen oxide _NO2 ) = 30 ug / m3

(d) Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) = 100 ug / m3

2. Pure Water: Drinking water should be free from bacteria and other pollutants. Generally, the water containing the following ingredients are acceptable for human consumption.

3. Pure Food: Food should normally be free from the bad effects of fertilizers, pesticides, chemicals, dirty water, and adulteration.

4. Health: Importance of a pollution free environment can also be judged by the following illustrations. If the environment is polluted the health of mankind/living organism will deteriorate and they may be affected by critical diseases as given below :

(a) Air-borne diseases :

(i) Asthma, cough, bronchitis due to SO2.

(ii) Giddiness, defects of the nervous system, genotoxicity due to pb.

(iii) Cancer, lung and kidney problems, unconsciousness due to CO.

(iv) chronic cavity, bronchitis, respiratory problems due to suspended particles.

(v) nasal cavity, bronchitis, respiratory problems, due to suspended particles.

(vi) eye-watering, red, eyes, breathing trouble due to smoke.

(b) Water-borne disease :

(i) cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever due to bacterial infections.

(ii) Hepatitis, poliomyelitis due to viral infections.

(iii) Amoebic dysentery due to protozoal infections.

Short Note On “Industrial Development And Environmental Degradation”

pollution is the product of our scientific achievements being applied for the improvement of human facilities. Environmental has become the biggest problem to the human race on these plants. pollution is adding impurity to our environment; the environment consists of earth, water, air plants, and animals. Pollution in our environment will hamper the core of the existence of man and desert or will be covered with sea and will cause the destruction of mankind.

The existing tendency of industrialization and urbanization in consists of countries has an enormous impact on natural and man-made environments. Pollution sources increase with the development of cities and cause contamination of air, water, and soil. Lack of urban environmental planning and management strategies has led to better concern for upcoming urban expansion. Unprecedented growing rates of global human population and urban development make tremendous stress on local, regional and global air and water quality. A necessity to a better understanding of the exits. Land use modification, urbanization, and infrastructure development specifically could destruct the natural environment and are treating biodiversity. Tools and measured must be adapted to evaluate and remedy the potential effect on biodiversity caused by human activities and developments.

Environmental Degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water, and soil; the destruction of the ecosystem and the extinction of wildlife. It is defined as any changes of disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable Environmental degradation is one of the ten threats officially cautioned by the high-level threat panel of the United Nations. The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction defines environmental degradation as “The reduction of the capacity of the capacity of the environment to meet the social and ecological objective, and needs.” Environment degradation is of many types, When natural habitats are destroyed or natural resources are depleted, the environment is degraded. Efforts to counteract this problem include environment protection and environmental resources management.

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