BBA Study Material Total Quality Management (TQM)
BBA Study Material Total Quality Management : The quality of a product assures the user that it which will serve the person effectively while satisfying the needs and wants which can be social, political, industrial and personal in nature. And, the quality, from the manufactures viewpoint, means the specific standards and characteristics of the product which are necessary during the usage of the product or which are demanded during its sale in the market.
So, in order to maintain the quality of the product, quality control techniques are applied at the work place and during work. Quality of raw materials used, the spare parts, the machines and the equipment should be inspected quite strictly because quality of product depends much upon the quality of raw materials. During the process of production, several checks are done through inspection of the semi-finished product and finished product and it is confirmed whether the quality of the product, conforms to the standards and specifications already set. For this purpose several devices or techniques are applied. If the quality of the product, is found not conforming to the standards and specifications set, the production department takes necessary steps to improve the quality of the defected articles by reworking on those articles and if it, anyhow, is not possible, other measures to sell those sub-standard items should be taken such as selling such items at reduced rates.
MEANING OF QUALITY CONTROL
The term ‘quality control consists of two words ‘quality’ and ‘control’. Quality is the trait, standard, specification and characteristic or a combination of characteristics which distinguishes one article from the other or goods of one manufacturer from that of competitors or one grade of product from another when both are the outcome of the same factory. The main characteristics that determine the quality of an article may include such elements as design, Size, material, chemical composition, mechanical functioning, electrical properties, workmanship, finish and appearance.
“The quality of a product may be defined as the sum of a number of related characteristics such as shape, dimension, composition, strength, workmanship, adjustment, finish and colour.”
–Dr. W.R. Spriegel
Control refers to the comparison of the actual results (finished product) with the predetermined standards and specifications Control is the correction in the quality of the process.
“Control consists in verifying whether everything occurs in conformity with the plan adopted the instructions issued and principles established. It has for object to point out weaknesses and errors in order to rectify them and prevent recurrence. It operates on everything-things, people
– Henry Fayol and action
Thus, quality control means the process of control where the management tries to conform the quality of the product in accordance with the pre-determined standards and specifications It is a systematic control of those variables that affect the excellence of the ultimate product,
Some definitions are being reproduced hereunder to make the term more clear:
“Quality control may be defined as that industrial management technique or group of techniques by means of which products of uniform acceptable quality are manufactured.”
–Alford and Beatty
“Quality control refers to the systematic control of those variables encountered in a manufacturing process which affect the excellence of the end product. Such variables result from the application of materials men, machines and manufacturing conditions.”
-Bethel, Atwater and Stackman
Thus, quality control is a technique of scientific management which has the object of improving industrial efficiency by concentrating on better standards of quality and on controls to ensure that these standards are always maintained. In this way, for quality control purposes, first standards and specifications are established and then to see whether the product conforms to those standards.
OBJECTIVES OF QUALITY CONTROL
The following are the chief objectives of quality control process:
- To check the quality : to check the quality of the raw materials, semi-finished goods and finished products at various stages of production process
- To see whether the product conforms to the predetermined standards and specifications : It is to whether it satisfies the needs of the customers.
- Remedial Steps: If the quality of the products deviates from the specifications, able to locate the reason for deviations and to take necessary remedial steps so that the deviation should not be recurred.
- To suggest suitable improvements : The another objective is to suggest improvement in the quality or standard of goods produced without much increase or no increase in the cost of production New techniques in machines and methods may be applied for purpose.
- To develop quality consciousness : It helps to develop quality consciousness in the various sections of the manufacturing unit.
- To assess the various techniques : It assesses the various quality control methods and process or production and suggest improvement in them to be more effective.
- To reduce the wastage : It reduces wastage of raw materials, men and machine during the process of production.
IMPORTANCE OR ADVANTAGES OF QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEM
The quality control system benefits both to the producers and the consumers. A quality product will satisfy the customer’s needs on the one hand and consequently the demand of the product will increase resulting in large-scale production. On the other hand, the goodwill of the firm increases as the producer of quality goods. It helps the producer in increasing the market for the goods. The importance of quality control lies in the following facts
- Reduction in costs : An efficient quality control system reduces the cost of production of the product due tofi) reduction in wastage of raw material, semi-finished and finished goods,fi) large-scale production of standard quality product, (iii) rework cost of the substandard goods is the minimum.
- Improvement in the morale of employees : Quality control system helps the employees to become quality-conscious. They understand the standards of the product well and try to improve the standards and produce the quality goods to the best of their efforts. Thus it improves the morale of the employees.
- Maximum utilisation of resources : Quality control system establishes the necessary control over the machines, equipment, men and materials and all other resources of the company is exercised. The system will also control the misuse of facilities, wastages of all types and low-standard production. (Thus, the resources of the company are put to maximum use.)
- Increase in sales : Increase in sales of the product is the main objective of the quality control system. By introducing quality control programme in manufacturing process, a quality product is made available to the consumers and that is too at lower rates because of lower cost of production. It in turn increases the demand of company’s product.
- Consumer’s satisfaction : Consumers always get the quality products of standard Specifications which they find to their utmost satisfaction.
POINTS OF CAUTION IN TQM IMPLEMENTATION
- TOM implementation should not be a half-hearted activity. Full commitment from all levels of employees is essential for its success. Commitment is continued pursuit of goals/tasks under all circumstances.
- TQM requires the employees at all levels to undergo attitudinal, informational and skills training Training the managers as well as the other non-managerial staff is essential to TOM’s proper implementation.
- TQM should be clearly directed activity with a definite goal towards which the organization would slowly but surely move. Therefore, there should be strategic plans and specific attainments chalked out. The goals should be clearly measurable for their quantum of realization. There should be clear matrix for the same.
- TQM should be focused on the customer. Complete satisfaction of the customer is the aim. Other factors should not confuse or dilute their aim.
- TQM is an ongoing activity, because the requirements/preferences of the customer may change.
- TQM should also not lose its sights on key business results. Focusing on the customer can only be done if the organization is able to survive and produces sufficient returns on investment as is amply clear, without an undiluted customer forces, the organization’s business results would suffering the longer run, if not in the short run. Full attention to both – customers and key business results – is essential.
Meaning of Importance : Quality Assurance refers to the assurance to customers that the products, parts, components, tools etc. contain specified characteristics and are fit for the intended use. Quality assurance is concerned with determining the procedures to be used and frequency of checks or tests to be made within the system so as to ensure that the system is meeting the specification incorporated in the product/service design. In today’s competitive industrial world, no business unit can exist for a long time without adhering to the quality. Now, the assurance of quality is not a responsibility of a single person or a department only. Only the inspection department or its personal cannot be held responsible for assurance of quality. It is the responsibility of everybody connected with the production, directly or indirectly, e.g., each and every department connected with production – from design and raw materials stage to dispatch and transportation stage Le., from the designing of the product of the sales and delivery of the finished product – is responsible.
TQM is the need of modern competitive Industrial Organisations
Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach to business, which looks critically at the products and services of a company in order to obtain complete customer satisfaction. The name includes the word ‘total because it involves everything the company does all its processes and employees at every end in the company at all times.
TQM is the sum of three attributes, namely Total + Quality + Management
- Total : Any decision or action transpiring in a particular department is not confined to that department but in turn influences the entire system of that organisation. Hence, every matter should be studied as a whole.
- Quality : Quality is the integration of quality in production, quality in services, and quality in management process.
- Management: Management is an art of accomplishing actions through others. TQM is a continuous improvement approach and it is founded on the tenet that quality can be managed and that it is a process. Quality is a way of managing, not a technical activity. Quality means something more than just the basics outlined in ISO 9000 or ISI.
PURPOSE OF TQM
The purpose of TOM is to set up a system and management discipline that prevents unnecessary losses in company’s performance cycle. The basic objective of a company is to
Integrate in order to achieve continuous integrate all the functions and processes with business processes Quality is the sine improvement of quality of goods and services and business pro
for any company. TOM primarily focus on total greatest factor in achieving market success for any como satisfaction
Total Quality involves everyone and all processes. Quality involves meeting customer requirement
Management involves Quality as a way of Managing.
FACTS RELATED TO TOM
TOM is the foundation of activities to attain the goal of error-free work most of the time. The assertion is expressed in various ways: right first time, zero defects. The idea is to strive for perfection in work. Zero defect production is the result of emphasis on prevention and careful use of measurement, process controls and elimination of waste and error. It serves as a goal for continuous improvement. Some points related to TOM are as follows:
- Prevention as the aim of all quality assurance.
- Quality as the single greatest factor in achieving market success for the company.
- Reducing products and services cost.
- Following Just in Time’ techniques
- Customer Satisfaction.
- Processes, not people, being the problem.
- Quality improvement as a continuous activity.
- Management of quality at all costs.
- Reduced variation
PRINCIPLES OF TQM
The concept of TOM focuses on the following five principles:
- Perform quality work at the initial stage itself.
- Customer focus is of prime importance.
- There should always be a strategic approach to improvement.
- Attempts for improvement should be continuous process.
- Team work and mutual respect should be encouraged.
OBJECTIVES OF TOM
- It will enrich the total quality of work, product and services and person.
- The employee will grow to be self-dependent and self-managed.
- The employee as a person will turn out to be quality conscious.
- The employees will develop self-discipline.
- Another hidden objective is that if we work with love and devotion, the glow of blissfulness will be bequeathed by God.
In the Indian context, TQM indicates that mind is the most significant dynamic of total excellent performance in any organisation it gives the direction to the management to establish vision, mission and business definitions. It is the intellectual strength of human beings that controls the quality of human resources and processes
Indian ethos entails thought process, perception, attitude and implementation actions, which maintain the quality of products and services. A perfect human being is the one who accepts everyone as a part of himself as an individual. Such a quality person in any organisation can best establish TQM. There are some factors discussed here for quality in a person:
- Attitude towards work
- Cooperation that peers, seniors and sub ordinates impart to him
- Leadership skills
- Top Management
- Family, mentor and ideals
- Teachers and Gurus
The Indian insight indicates that human mind is the master for improvising the quality of performance in any domain. Quality of mind essentially improves the quality of products and services.
We have the “7M” framework, which includes:
In TOM, everyone participates in the process, right from the managing director to the office peon. Everyone in the company is responsible for producing quality goods and services In TOM, chiromancer feedback is vital to enable managers at all levels to improve their contribution to business. An appropriate system of recognition and reward is critical to any company’s TOM programme, particularly as quality improvement process.
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