BBA Study Material Short Notes of Cultural Values
BBA Study Material Short Notes of Cultural Values
Culture has a great influence on an individual’s value framework. Culture relativism states that ethics is a function of culture. Individual relativism says that what is right or wrong depends upon the attitude of the individual. But there are many critics of this view who affirm that moral and ethical views are universal and apply to all cultures.
The 20th century has been a melting pot of various cultures. Scientific inventions have made the world a global village. The story of this period is one of progress towards greater justice but also one of regression. It has been a time of transition from a fragmented to a global society. BBA Study Material Short Notes of Cultural Values
The liberal modern culture is proving to be far less value-dominated and much more self-indulgent. The prevailing stage of business, society and policy is influencing long-standing and cherished value systems and causing a drift. But the diversity in behavior among cultures is only apparent and cultures do agree on certain fundamental ethical standards. Culture and tradition of each family is a unit of the total culture f nay society and nation. Confusions in the moral life outside which is in one’s own inner mind have ruined family traditions. When the moral integrity of individuals in families is destroyed, the morality of the society also slowly wanes. When the general morality of society has decayed, individuals, blinded by uncontrolled passion, start acting without restraint. Lust and agreed knows no logic and cares least for better evolution or better culture. When the unity of the home is shattered, and when purity of living and sanctity of thought are destroyed in society, the generation inflicts sorrow and suffering on itself.
Western And Indian Culture
Every culture is an integration of social and religious practices. Components of religion are intrinsically meant to induce particular behavioral patterns, leading to proper attitude formation for a healthy society. Customs are the habits of a community, which secure social
approval for conduct and are exemplified in the life of the beast people of the community. The are the unwritten laws of social tradition, distinguished from the codified tradition. They are essence, social approval.
Cultures differ in physical setting, economic development, the state of science and technology, literacy rate and in many other ways. The commonly held principle underline various cultures is that social institution and individual behaviour should be ordered so that they lead to the greatest good for the greatest number. BBA Study Material Short Notes of Cultural Values
Western Society built its edifice on scientific knowledge. Scientific knowledge is based on data, which is collected through observation, i.e. through sense experience. This view, known as the positivistic approach, is based on the premise that verification can be made on the basis of repeated observation. The approach assumes that reality is objective and deterministic. In this conception of science, the authority of the senses is the building block and knowledge not based on sense experience is dismissed as non-scientific, Much of the scientific activity in various disciplines, including social sciences and even ethics, has been influenced by this thinking.
Western Culture is based upon industrialization and large-scale production. The financiers and industrialists, with the aid of modern scientific knowledge, struggle hard to discover and satisfy new desires, and to the extent an individual has fulfilled his newly created desires, is taught by the day’s civilization that he is that much happier than before.
Some of the key points of Western culture are:
- Self-centered : Motivated by principle of personal benefit.
- Exploitation of nature : Exploit natural resources to satisfy desires.
- Capital intensive : Industrialization and large-scale production.
- Market oriented : Creating ‘fresh needs’ to develop and expand and the market.
In spite of the best that may be available in life, a sense on incompleteness drives people to experience spiritual ways of life. Developed nations are not daring to go beyond the values of economic expansion and materialistic gains.
About 2400 BC, spread over half a million square miles on the Indus Valley, lived a people belonging to an advanced civilization. Their cities were on a grid system, whose population numbered abut 30,000. There were houses with baths, plumbing and good drainage, made of uniformly sized bricks. This civilization invented script and a standard system of weights and measures. Its people believed in Vedic or Santa religion. Very little is known of the origin of this
and rich faith but tradition recorded in Bhagwad Gita, the Vedas and the Upanishads, tells us of their belief: to always seek the truth and to live a harmless life.
The Hindu culture is based on this pursuit of the truth with concepts like Meditative Yoga arma Yoga. The second theme of Hindu teachings, the injunction to live a harmless life, is a ve rather than a negative one, and means doing what will benefit oneself, other persons, Indeed nature as well. The teachings in support of this theme puts emphasis on the family, salted position of women, cleanliness, charity and kindness to animals. BBA Study Material Short Notes of Cultural Values
Indian culture operates at two levels-the individual and the group. At the individual level it talks of development of the self at the group level of duties/responsibilities of individual towards social groups, i.e. family and community. Indian culture is oriented towards harmonious group activities. It feels the strong emotional need for vertical leaders. In summary the Hindu culture operates on the following paradigms:
Development of self: spiritual pre-eminence.
Harmony with nature : living with nature.
Labor intensive : importance to individual skills of production.
Society oriented : importance to family and community as a unit.
These paradigms, conducive to a contented society, were virtually overlaid since the beginning of recorded history by a vast array of practices and rituals. Lately, the early emphasis on cleanliness seems to have been largely forgotten. Worst of all has been the growth of a rigid and all-pervasive caste system. There have been several attempts to rake the culture back to its original purity. The last 200 years have been an era of influence of the Western culture and the impact of the industrial revolution of Indian culture and society.
Ethical Values And Culture
Cultural relativism is a philosophical position which holds that ethics is a function of culture. According to this view, there are no absolute principles in ethics; principles are relative in nature and hold away within given cultures. Cultural relativism believes that what is right or wrong, good or bad, depends on one’s culture. Relativists point to the fact that different individuals and cultures hold different views about what constitutes moral behavior. BBA Study Material Short Notes of Cultural Values
Norman E Bowie (1990) presents an analysis of cultural relativism and its relationship to ethical decision-making in multinational corporations. He identifies the basic flaw in this position by saying that there may not be different moral standards among cultures. Bowie says that there are universal moral principles which apply to all cultures. Once these moral principles are identified, cultural relativism does not hold at all. A whole range of behavior, e.g. torture, murder of the innocent, racism, and casteism, would be accepted as wrong by employee.
Individual Relativism, states that what is right or wrong, good or bad, depends on the feelings or attitudes of the individual. There is no valid cultural norm that will tell us which individual is objectively right. The relativists say, ‘Ethics is irrelevant since there is no universal right or wrong-it is all relative’ or ‘you can’t teach me ethics-that is just your opinion.’
If individual relativism were the prevailing view, a stable society would be impossible; life would be difficult and brutish. Being relative does not mean a standard is not valid (e.g. speed limits on roads).Also, relativists can’t complain that something is unfair. If you think something is unfair, you are not a true relativist. One should understand that certain moral values are universal.
The same argument holds true for the advocates of cultural relativism because you need a stable world environment for global harmony. An unstable country or region is highly inimical to international peace in the atomic age and in an age where terrorism is in some societies an acceptable form of political activity. To rest one’s conduct on the ethics of mere relatively is sure to cause moral drifting and create an unstable and unsafe world.
Moral Absolutism and relativism
Moral absolutism is a philosophy that regards morality as absolute that is not dependent on society or situation. In some sense, this is a contrast to moral relativism; in moral absolutism, morals are held to be independent of social customs and are instead inferent in the laws of the universe, the nature of humanity, or some other fundamental source. Moral absolutism is typified in such phrases as ‘Right is right and wrong is wrong.
Moral absolutism regards actions as inherently ‘good’ or ‘bad’. In some cases, this is taken to the more extreme position of regarding actions as good or bad regardless of the circumstances of the action. Lying, for instance, would always be a ‘bad’ action, even if done to promote some other ‘good’. In this sense, it is in contrast or consequence of that action. However, in either case, if lying were necessary to save a life, a person would be obligated to do so, so as to minimize the harm done.
Modern human rights theory is a form absolutism, usually based on the nature of humanity and the essence of human nature. Many religious have morally absolutist positions regarding the system of morality as having been set by a deity or deities. They, therefore, regard such as absolute, perfect, and unchangeable. The philosophy of objectivity also takes a morally absolutist stance, as it regards the laws of morality to be, like the laws of physics, inherent in the universal itself. The philosopher Emmanuel Kant was a promoter of moral absolutism.
Moral relativism believes that moral standards are not absolute, but instead emerge from social customs and other sources. The philosophical stance can be traced back at least as far as the Greek scholar Protagoras, who stated that ‘Man is the measure of all things. A modern interpretation of this statement might be that things exist only in the context of the people who observe them.
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