BBA Environmental studies Questions Unit 6
BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 6
Q.1. Give an account of greenhouse effect.
Write an essay on greenhouse effect. (2011)
Ans. Greenhouse Effect
The heating of earth’s atmosphere due to trapped infrared
reflected from earth surface by atmospheric gases is known as greenhouse effect. This cause global warming The increase in temperature depends on the presence of greenhouse gases. There are CO2, CH4, CFCs and N20, are also known as radioactive gases as they can absorb long waves infrared radiations. The concentration of greenhouse gases is increasing appreciably and affecting global climate. The increase in mean global temperature due to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases is known as global warming. Clouds and dust particles also produce greenhouse effect. Hence, cloudy, dusty humid nights are comparatively warmer than that of clear, dustfree, dry nights.
CO2 : It is most abundant and cause 60% greenhouse effect.
Sources: Burning of fossil fuels, decay of dead organisms, thermal power plants, eruption of volcanoes, forest fires, cooking etc.
Average volume of CO2 in atmosphere has increased from 316.8 ppm (parts per million) in 1960 to 366.7 ppm in 2000.
CH4 : The concentration of methane has also increased since pre-industrial times. It was 700 ppb in 1750 but increased up to 1750 ppb (part per billion) in 2000.
Sources: Incomplete decomposition of organic matter due to methanogens in anaerobic conditions.
- Flood paddy fields.
- Enteric fermentation in cattle and biomass. Burning methane has a global warming potential 63 times that of CO2 and accounts for 15% of global warming.
CFC. (Chlorofluorocarbons) : These are compounds of carbon and halogens, used in refrigerators, air conditioners, fire extinguishers, production of plastic foam, jet fuel etc.
N2O (Nitrous Oxide): Main sources are burning of nitrogen ich fuel, livestock wastes, breakdown of nitrogen fertilizers etc.
- Melting of glaciers, snow, mountains, polar icecaps.
- Increase in sea level.
- Flooding of low lying coastal areas.
- Change in climate pattern.
- More cyclones/hurricanes.
- Submersion of islands.
Global warming will lead to explosive growth of weed. This will also increase incidence of plant disease. All these factors will affect crop production adversely.
Control of Global Warming
We can control the global warming by the following ways:
- Increase vegetation area particularly forests to utilize CO2 in photosynthesis.
- Limit the use of fossil fuels to reduce emission of greenhouse gases:
- Use of solar and wind energy.
- Minimum use of nitrogen fertilizers.
Different Greenhouse Gases and their Present Ratio is :
CO2 → 59% 2.CH4 → 15% 3.CFCs 19%4.N 20, NO — 6%
Q.2. Define acid rain and give an account of its effects.
Ans. Acid Rain : Robert August (1872) coined the term ‘Acid Rain’. Acid rain is a man-made phenomenon and refers to precipitation with a pH of less than 5. It is a mixture of H2SO4 and HNO3. The ratio of of two acids (HNO3 and H,802 ) depends on the amounts of sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides in air. These oxides are most common gaseous pollutants released into the atmosphere by factories on account of combustion of fossil fuels, smelters, power plants, automobile exhausts, fire etc. Air borne SO2 and S03 react with water/water vapours to form H2SO3 and H2SO4.
SO2 + H2O – H2SO3
SO3 SO3 + H2O – H2SO4
Nitrogen oxides react with water/water vapours to form nitric acid.
2NO + O – N2O5
N2O5 + H2O – 2HNO3
These acids are dissolved in water falling down in the form of rain drops and known as acid rain.
Normally 60-70% acidity is caused by H2SO4 and 30-40% by HNO3. On the earth surface acid rain increases the acidity of water and destroys aquatic vegetation and lowers the oxygen content of water. Acid rain is a global problem because these oxides can travel thousands of miles and may undergo physical/chemical transformations which may cause acid rain and produce hazardous products.
From atmosphere both acids (H2SO4 and HNO3) are deposited over earth surface in two forms-wet and dry..
Wet Deposition : It occurs on earth in the form of snow, fog and rain.
Dry Deposition : It refers to settling down of wind blown acidic gases (oxides of sulphur and nitrogen) and other particles dry on trees/other surfaces and come down to earth during rain. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 6
Effects of Acid Rain
- Acid rain causes chlorosis, necrosis of leaves which ultimately reduce crop production.
- It causes an adverse effect on photosynthesis thereby reduce agricultural production.
- It inhibits seed germination and seedling growth, e.g. barely, alfa-alfa, spinach, lettuce etc.
- May cause wilting of plant parts.
- May effect enzymatic activities adversely.
Q.3. Briefly discuss salient features of Forest Conservation Act, 1986.
Ans. This act was promulgated in 1980. It is called Forest Conservation Act, 1980 and was Amended in 1988. Its salient features are as follows:
Objectives : This act has following objectives :
- Protection and conservation of forests.
- To ensure Judicious use of forest products.
Important Definitions :
- Forest is a biotic community composed predominantly of trees, shrubs and woody climbers.
- Forest Produce includes timber, charcoal, catechu, wood, oil etc. whether brought from or found in a forest or not. When brought from a forest, it includes trees, leaves, flower, fruit plant parts, grass, creepers etc.
- ‘Forest-offence’ means offence punishable under this Act or under any rule made Act.
- ‘Forest-officer’ means any person appointed by state government for the purpose of carrying out duties and objectives under this Act.
Notification of Forests : According to section 3 of Act, a forest land or wasteland which is the property of government and whole or part of forest produce, may be constituted as reserve forest by state government after issuing a notification in official gazette under sections of the Act.
- Declaring that it has been decided to constitute any land as a reserve forest.
- Specifying situation and limits of such a land.
- Appointing an officer not below the rank of a forest officer, except that of forest settlement officer.
State government may appoint not more than three officers, only one of whom shall be holding forest office except as aforesaid to perform duties of forest settlement officer under section 4 of the Act.
After issuing notification as under section 4, the officer shall publish a proclamation in local vernacular in every town and village in neighbourhood of land comprised.
According to section 6 of the Act, proclamation shall be such so as to :
- specify situations and limits of proposed forest.
- Explain consequences which will ensure reservation of such forest.
- Fix a period of not more than 3 months from date of such proclamation for claiming any right over any land or over forest produce to present forest officer. A written notice should be given to specify the nature of such right and amount and particular of compensation claimed.
Q.4. Write a short note on anti-green house effect.
Ans. Anti-Green House Effect: It is a neologism used to describe two different effects, coming under the header of “The cooling effect an atmosphere has on the ambient temperature of the planet.” Anti-green house effect is only known to exist in one situation in the solar system. The conventional greenhouse effect occurs because the atmosphere is largely transparent to solar radiation but opaque to infrared.While in anti-green house effect the atmosphere becomes opaque to solar but lets out infrared.
Titan shows greenhouse effect as well as anti-greenhouse effect. As partially compensates for the greenhouse warming and keeps the surface approximately 9°C cooler than would otherwise be expected from the greenhouse effect alone.
According to McKay at al the anti-green house effect on Titan reduces the surface temperature by 9K whereas, the greenhouse effect increases it by 21K. The net effect of the surface temperature is 12K warmer than the effective temperature 82K.
Q.5. Write a note on ‘Asian Brown Cloud’.
Ans. Asian Brown Cloud : It is a layer of air pollution that cover parts of South Asia i.e. India, Pakistan and Northen Indian ocean. Satellite photo shows a cloud of brown stain hanging in the air over much of south Asia or Indian ocean before January to March. The cloud was reported by NASA in 2004 and 2007
Causes : The main cause of it is humidity condition forming haze, which is created by a range of air born particle and pollutant from combustion, e.g. wood fire, car and factories, biomass burning, industrial processes with incomplete burning. The cloud is associated with winter monsoon during which there is no rain to wash pollutants from the air. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 6
Impacts : Major impact is on health. In 2002 the study indicates that approximately two million people die each year in India alone from condition related to brown cloud.
In 2008 a report was published about the impact of brown cloud and it shows concern about :
- Increase in rainfall, displacing the thermal equator or southwards cooling of the air in east Asia.
- Retreat of Hindu Kush-Himalayas glaciers and snow packs. Melting of Asian glaciers, leading tp water shortage and floods for the people living down stream.
- Change in rainfall pattern with Asian monsoon.
- Decrease in crop harvests. Elevated concentration of surface zone is likely to affect crop yields negativity.
Q.6. Explain acid rain in brief. Discuss the harmful effects of acid rain. (2011)
Ans. Acid Rain : The term acid rain was introduced by Robert Angus in 1872. It literally means presence of excessive acid in rain.
Areas of Acid Rain
- In heavily populated cities, internal combustion engines of scooters, cars, trucks and buses emit CO, CO2 and Hydrocarbons.
- Large number of industries emit CO, CO2, SO2,SO3, NO, NO2, etc. in air. Out of these acidic gases are absorbed by moisture in air to form acids. So, more acid rain occurs in highly populated cities and industrial areas.
Harmful Effects of Acid Rain
The acid rain is harmful for living and non-living beings in many ways as discussed below:
- Increased acidity of rain water causes damage to fresh water animals like fishes etc.
- Many bacteria and blue green algae are killed due to acidification of water, thus disturbing the whole ecological balance.
- In the form of mist, it damages plant leaves.
- PH of rain water is lowered due to acid rain. It changes the rate of metabolism in animals.
- It accelerates rate of corrosion of metals.
- Acid rain dissolves salts in soil like calcium carbonate and metals like aluminum which are passed on to ponds, lakes and rivers. It has toxic effect on aquatic life.
- Acid rain causes extensive damage to buildings and structural materials made of marble, limestone and stone etc. Attack of acid rain on marble is called “Stone Leprosy”.
- Corrosive damage to steel, zinc, oil-based points and automobile coatings.
- Possible effect of human beings lungs, skin, hair may be affected. The heavy metals released by acid rain may also cause potential threat to human health. An acidification of drinking water reservoirs and concurrent increase in heavy metal concentration may exceed public health limits and may cause injurious effects.
- Due to acid rain, Taj Mahal may get destroyed, because it is made up of marble and acid reacts with marble to form CO2.
Q.7. Explain problems associated with ozone layer depletion.
Ans. Ozone hole refers to thinning of stratospheric ozone layer during spring time. It was first ecovered in 1985 over Antarctica. Existence of ozone hole was confirmed above Arctic in 1990. uring spring time, in year 1956-1970, thickness of O, layer above Antarctica varied from 280-235 Dabson unit (1 DU=1 ppb). It reduced sharply to 225 DU in 1979 and 136 DU in 1985. It continued to decline to about 94 DU in 1994. This decline was termed as ozone hole. During period 1997-2001, slobal average total ozone column was about 3% below the pre 1980 average value. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 6
A number of pollutants enter into stratosphere and deplete ozone layer. These include CFC, CH4 and N20. Among these CFCs are the most damaging agents of ozone layer. They produce “active chlorine’ (Cl and GIO radicals) in presence of U.V. radiation. The active chlorine catalytically destroy ozone by converting it into oxygen, CH, and N, also destroy ozone through a complicated series of reactions. Discoveries related to ozone destruction were made by Sherwood Rowland, Mario Molina and Paul Cruttzen. They were honoured with Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1995.
Effects : Depletion of ozone layer allows more U.V.-B radiation reaching the earth surface. It has been estimated that a 5% loss of ozone results in a 10% increases in U.V.-B radiation. Some of important effects of ozone depletion are as follows:
- In humans, increased U.V. radiation increases incidences of cataract, skin cancer
(including melanoma) and decline in functioning of immunity system.
- Elevated level of U.V. radiation damages nucleic acids in living organisms,
- V. radiation inhibit photosynthesis in plants and phytoplanktons, which in turn affect the whole food chain.
Its remedial measures are :
- Reduce release of CFCs in atmosphere.
- Use biofertilizers instead of nitrogeneous fertilizers.
- Intensify efforts to find alternative and non-polluting fuels.
- Limits should be set on number of industries in region that may cause harm to ozone layer.
- International awareness programmes should be conducted at grass root level to educate people about harms of U.V. radiations.
Q.8. Explain acid rain its effects on environment
Ans. Natural rain is clean water. It dissolves varying amounts of naturally occuring CO2 from atmosphere. It is only slightly acidic due to formation of carbonic acid (H2CO3) by following chemical reaction :
CO2 + H2O – H2CO3
But acid rain is different from it. It is caused when SO2, NO2 etc. present in atmosphere, dissolve in natural rain-water and rainfalls. It is acidic because pH value of natural rain water is between 5.6 to 7, this value for acid rain is less than 6.5. Degree of acidity depends on intensity of dissolved acidic ingredient. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 6
Mechanism of Formation of Acid Rain: Acid rains were unheard earlier. This name came into existence with growing industrialization. Exhaust emission of various industries, automobiles, power plants etc. contain acidic oxides such as NO2, SO2, HCl etc. When these oxides dissolve in rain water particles or moisture present in atmosphere, they form acids and when it falls on earth with rain water fallout is called ‘acid rain’. Mechanism of formation of acid rain undergoes following chemical reactions :
N2O + O2 + H2O – 2HNO2 (i.e. nitrous acid)
4NO2 + O2 + 2H20 – HNO3 (i.e. nitric acid)
SO2 + H2O – H2SO3 (i.e. sulphurous acid)
Effects and Remedial Measures
The effects of acid rain and their remedial measures are discussed below:
- Fresh water is spoiled and fish population in ponds, lakes and rivers is reduced.
- Tree leaves and plantations are damaged.
- Rate of metabolism of organisms is altered.
- Causes irritation to mucus membrane and eyes.
- Causes damage to structures and buildings, marbles etc.
- Rate of corrosion of metals accelerates.
Although increased Co2 concentration in atmosphere may have number of beneficial effects on plants, but these effects may not be realized because of negative effects of global warming.
Q.9. What is acid rain? (2011)
Ans. Acid Rain : Acid rain is the result of air pollution when there is a very high content of corrosive nitric acid in the clouds which come down as rain, that rain is called acid rain.
Acid rain is a phenomenon occurring since the past few decades. Rain reacts with the oxides come from the industrial as well as automobiles emission. The electric power plants that use the energy produced by burning coal to generate electricity emits sulphur from coal which is converted to sulphur dioxide when it burns. The rain turn acidic due to the gases emitted by industries and automobile exhausts. These gases react under the influence of oxidants catalyze emits radiation before dissolving into water droplets and ice crystals to form dilute acid solution. This acid solution falls on the earth as rain, snow, hail, dew and fog etc.
Q.10. Write short notes on greenhouse gases.
Ans. Greenhouse Effect: The greenhouse effect is the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by gases in the atmosphere warm a planet’s lower atmosphere and surface. Naturally occurring greenhouse gases have a mean
ring greenhouse gases have a mean warming effect of about 33°C (59°F). The major greenhouse gases are :
- Water Vapors (not clouds) – 36-70% of greenhouse effect
- Carbon dioxide (CO2) – 9-26% of greenhouse effect
- Methane (CH4) – 4-9% of greenhouse effect
- Ozone (03) – 3-7% of greenhouse effect 20
Human activity through industrial revolution has increased the amount of greenhouse erect the atmosphere, leading to increased radioactive forcing from CO2, CH2, O2 CFC and nitrous oxide. concentration of CO2 and CH4 is increased by 36 and 148%.
CO2 concentration is rising continuously due to burning of fossil fuels and land use change. It rises in such speed the range of Co, in future by the year 2100 will be ranging from 541-970 ppm. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 6
Q.11. What is water prevention and control of pollution act?
Ans. Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act: The act was proposed in 1974. The enactment has been made with an objective to prevent and control water pollution and also to maintain, restore the quality of water as specified for various purposes, e.g. irrigation, fishery, drinking etc.
The provisions of this act have been amended to meet the exigencies arising from time to time.
This act came into existence on 12th December 1978. The act was given originally on 23rd March 1974 and later was amended in 1978. It says “An act to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution and the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water, for the establishment, with a view to carrying out the purposes aforesaid, of boards for the prevention and control of water pollution, for conferring on the assigning to such board powers and functions relating thereto and for matters connected there with”.
Q.12. What is air prevention and control of pollution act?
Ans. Air Prevention and Control of Pollution Act: The act was proposed in 1981. The objective of this legislation is to improve the quality of air within the fixed standards. It has been observed that this legislation has comprehensive provision to meet the challenge of air pollution.
It also provides for penal action against person or industries causing damage to air.
The act came into existence on 29th March, 1981. It says “An act to provide for the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution, for the establishment, with a view to carrying out the aforesaid purposes of boards, for conferring on and assigning to such boards, powers and functions relating thereto and for matters connected therewith.”
Q.13. Write an essay on the protection of wildlife in India. (2013)
Ans. Wildlife Protection Act
The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted for protection of plants and animal species. Before 1972, India only had five designated national parks. Among other reforms, the Act established schedules of protected plant and animal species; hunting or harvesting these species was largely outlawed.
The Art provides for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants; and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto. It extends to the whole of India, except the state of Jammu and Kashmir which has its own wildlife act. It has six schedules which give varying degrees of protection. Schedule I and part II of Schedule Il provide absolute protection-offences under these are. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 6
Q.14. Define following terms:
- Protected areas.
- National parks.
- Biosphere reserves.
Ans. (a) Protected Areas : They are ecological/biogeographical areas where wildlife is conserved by maintaining habitats, natural resources and preventing poaching. They are delimited to protect biological diversity, e.g. cold desert (Ladakh and Spiti), hot deserts (Thar), wet land (Assam and North-Eastern States), saline swampy areas (Sunderbans, Rann of Kachchh), mangroves, temperate forests, subtropical forests, tropical wet evergreen forests, tropical moist deciduous forests, tropical dry deciduous forests, tropical thorn, coral reefs etc. Protected areas include national parks, sanctuaries and biosphere reserves.
(b) National Parks : They are areas maintained by government and reserved for betterment of wildlife. Cultivation, grazing, forestry and habitat manipulation are not allowed. There are 104 national parks in India, occupying nearly 2% of geographical area.
(c) Sanctuaries: They are tracts of land with or without lake where wild animals fauna can take refuge without being hunted. Other activities like collection of forest products, harvesting of timber, private ownership of land, tilling of land etc. are allowed. India has 151 sanctuaries occupying over 4% of geographical area.
(d) Biosphere Reserves : They are multipurpose protected areas which are preserving genetic diversity in representative ecosystems by protecting wild populations, trad. life style of tribals and domesticated plant/animal genetic resources. There are some 243 DIOS reserves in 65 countries of the world. In India, 14 potential sites were identified in 1979 by Advisory Group but 9 biosphere reserves have been set up by now. Each biosphere reserved
- Core Zone: No human activity is allowed.
- Buffer Zone: Limited human activity is permitted.
- Manipulation Zone: Human activity is allowed but ecology is not permitted to be disturbed.
- Restoration Zone : Degraded area for restoration to near natural form.
Q.15. Write a short note on Tiger project. (2012)
Ans. Project Tiger: Project Tiger was launched in 1973 in India. The pre viable population of Bengal Tiger in the their natural habitats and preserving areas of importance as a natural heritage for the people. The selection of areas for the reserves represented as dose as possible, the diversity of ecosystem across the tiger’s distribution in the country. The project’s task force visualized these tiger reserves as breeding nuclei, from which surplus animais would emigrate to adjacent forests. Funds and commitments were mustered to support the program of habitat protection and rehabilitation under the project. The government has set the Tiger Protection Force to combat poachers and funded the relocation of upto 200,000 villagers to minimize human-tiger conflicts. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 6
During the tiger census of 2008, a new methodology was used extrapolating site-specific densities of tigers, their co-predators and prey derived from camera trap and sign surveys using GIS. Rased on the result of these surveys,the total tiger population has been estimated at 1,411 individuals ranging from 1,165 to 1,657 adult and sub-adult tigers of more than 1.5 years of age.
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