BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 4 In this post you learn Biodiversity and its conservation : Introduction, definition : Genetic, species and ecosystem diversity, biogeographical classification of India, value of biodiversity : consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values, biodiversity at global, national and local levels, India as a mega-diversity nation, hot-sports of biodiversity. Threats to bio-diversity : habitat loss, poaching of a wildlife, main-wildlife conflicts, Endangered and endemic species of India, conservation of biodiversity : In-situ and ex-situ conservation of biodiversity. Also you learn more topics on this site. BBA study material, BBA short notes, BBA examination papers, BBA question Bank and so on.
Q.1. Give an account on biogeographical regions in India.
Ans. Biogeographical Regions in India : India exhibits a vast biodiversity due to inclusion elements of all the three bio geographic realms, ie. Afro-tropical. Euro-Asian and Indo-Malayan biogeographical realms. There is a wide range of varieties of habitats and climatic conditions present. India is one of the eight centers of high crop genetic diversity and characterized by having a high proportion of endemic species in its vegetation.
Time to time India was divided into different regions by scientists. Recently Botanical Survey of India (BSI) in 1991 has divided India in nine biogeographical regions, based on floral diversity :
- North Western Himalayas : Outer ranges covered by subtropical dry evergreen, subtropical pine forests and moist temperate zone forests. Inner ranges of mountains have dry temperate forests, moist alpine shrubs or dry alpine shrubs etc.
- Eastern Himalayas: Eastern Himalaya is wet and warm, rich in biodiversity. Lower slopes possess tropical semi-evergreen forests with patches of subtropical broad leaves hill forests.
- Western Arid Region : It includes sparse vegetation on a fairly district habitats like sandy plains and dunes, rocky habitat and saline depressions gravelly plains.
- Gangetic Plain : Gangetic plain starts from eastern Rajasthan through Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand to Bihar and Bengal. Gangetic plains are agriculture rich lands. Natural vegetation Introduction, dennom . Genetic, consists of tropical moist deciduous forests. The southeast end of gangetic plain merges with literal and mangrove regions of sunderban.
- Eastern India : It includes Arunanchal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalays, Tripura, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland etc. In this region, tropical wet evergreen forests, tropical moist deciduous forest. Subtropical broad leaved hill forests, subtropical pine forests are prominent. Nagaland, a kharia hills have many endemic plants such as Napenthese or pitcher plant. This region has richest bamboo forest, orchids, tree ferns, aroids etc.
- Deccan Plateau : It includes south of Vindhyachal hills and Endangered and endemic species Eastern and Western Ghats. In theis region tropical thorn forests. of India, conservation of biodiversity tropical dry deciduous forests in northern, central and southern in-situ and ex-situ conservation of parts of plateau are prominent. Moist deciduous forests are biodiversity common in Andhra Pradesh, M.P. and Orissa.
- Western Ghats : It is rich in tropical moist deciduous forests, tropical semi-evergreen forests and tropical wet evergreen forests in Karnataka and Kerala. High altitudes maintain wet temperate forests and Nilgiris have, broad leaved hill forests. It has rich endemic flora also. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 4
Q.2. Write an essay on biodiversity.
What is biodiversity? Give its importance. (2011)
India is a mega diversity nation. Explain it.(2013)
Ans. Biodiversity : Life on earth has constantly evolved for last four billion years to form the present living world. World convention for biological diversity, has recommended the following definition of biodiversity in UNEP 1992:
“Biodiversity or biological diversity means the variability among living organisms from all sources including, interlaid, terrestrial, marine and other ecosystems and the ecological complex of which they are part, this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystem.”
The present definition of bodiversity is “the intrinsically-inbuilt plus the externally imposed variability in and among living organisms existing in terrestrial, marine and other ecosystem at a specific period of time”.
Biodiversity is commonly considered at three different levels :
- Genetic Diversity : Genes are the biochemical substances passes from one generation to the other and determine physical or biochemical characters of off springs. Variation occurs in meiosis stage. The result of variation is mostly visible such as color, size etc. it may be invisible also, e.g. susceptibility to disease. The genetic variability produces new breeds of crops, domestic animals etc. to allow the species to adapt the changed condition.
- Species Diversity: A group of organisms genetically so similar that they can interbreed and produce fertile offspring is known as species. The diversity in species is measured in terms of the total number of species within discrete geographical boundaries.
- Ecosystem Diversity : The functional relationship among the communities and their environment is frequently complex, but they are the mechanising major ecological processes such as water cycle, soil formation, nutrient cycling and energy flow. Two different phenomenon are also there of ecosystem diversity :
Conservation of Biodiversity
The biodiversity is conserved on moral and practical reasons. Biodiversity supports human survival through food and industry. The fundamental, social, ethical, cultural and economic values of biodiversity have been recognized in most of the human discipline from religion to science.
In India the conservation ethic was embeded the sylvan surrounding of the Ashrams of our sages, which were the seats of learning in the country’s ancient part. The love and regard for flora and fauna is a part of Indian culture. A rhyme from Yajurveda involves universal peace :
“Let there be peace of air, peace of earth, peace of water, peace of plants and peace of trees.” This Vedic rhyme reveals how responsive the Indian sensibility was. They loved everyone in nature and wildlife.
Estimation of Biodiversity
The biodiversity is measured generally in three ways:
- Alpha Diverstiy : Diversity measured within a unit area e.g. a lake.
- Beta Diversity : Diversity gradient measured by sampling across an ecotone e.g. from savnna grassland to forest.
- Gamma Diverstiy: Rate at which diversity changes with increasing area.
Alpha diversity is the most frequently used conservation, as it is site based and enable comparison of alternative areas and the mapping distribution of diversity on a regional scale.
Biodiversity in India
The Indian landmass is bounded by Himalayas in north, Bay of Bengal in east and Arbian sea in west. It has three well defined regions :
- The trans Himalayan mountain zone including the north-eastern hill range.
- The Indogangetic plains.
- The peninsula including the eastern and western ghats of the Vindya-Satpura ranges.
According to world biogeographically classification, India has two realms the Palaeorelic of Indo-Malayan. Three biomass, i.e. tropical humid forests, tropical dry deciduous forests and warm or semi deserts are found.
Q.3. Give an account of causes of extinction of species.
Ans. 1. Hunting : Hunting is of three types:
(a) Sport Hunting : Killing animals for recreation.
(b) Subsistence Hunting : Killing animals for safety and food.
(c) Commercial Hunting : Killing animals for food, fur and other parts, e.g. elephant for ivory, jaguar, snow leopard, tiger and cheetah for fur, musk deer for musk, whale for blubber and whale bone. Population of Blue whale was 200,000 in 1950 and 1000 in 1990, that of black rhino 65000 in 1970 and 5000 in 1986. Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has disappeared from India. Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) was the most numerous bird in the biginning of nineteenth century (with several million animals in one flock). Because of their hunting for food, they have become extinct with last pigeon dying in Cincinnati Zoo in 1914. President Roosevelt of U.S.A. ordered the destruction of Wolf and Puma from Kaibab plateau in order to save Deer herds. Deer population increased thereafter that destroyed vegatation and converted the area into desert. 100 mammals, 88 birds, numerous orchids and medicinal plants have become extinct in the past 200 years. 25000 plants species. 1000 vertebrates and 10% of invertebrate species are in danger of extinction. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 4
- Destruction of Habitats : Natural habitats of wildlife has been destroyed due to:
(a) Establishment of new human settlements, croplands and mining areas.
(b) Deforestation due to jhuming, felling of trees for timber/firewood, fire and overgrazing.
(c) Acid rain damages forests/grasslands. Pollution of water bodies kills aquatic plants and DDT use reduced the population of several birds like bald eagle, brown pelican, peregrine falcon and osprey.
(d) Building of roads and rails through ecologically fragile areas.
(e) Dams/reservoirs destroy habitats of wildlife and block spawning and migration of certain fishes.
(f) Filling of drainage of wetlands.
- Cleanliness: Vultures and kites feed on carcases. Since, the carcases are being buried or burnt now, the population of largest flying birds, california candor (Gymnogyps californianus) has started declining.
- Migratory Routes : Changes in settling areas and routes of migratory animals, result in their going astray and pershing.
Q.4. Describe bio-magnification.
Ans. Bio-magnification: Industrial wastes are usually released into water containing highly toxic substances like lead, copper, zinc, cadmium, cyanides, arsenic, salts/acids/alkalies, etc.
All these substances can cause harm to health of human beings, plants, microbes and animals. They may reach directly to human beings through contaminated food/water of indirectly through plants and animals. The concentration of toxic substances increase at each trophic level of food chain. This is known as bio-magnification or biological concentration, e.g. river water may have very low concentration of DDT but carnivorous fish in the river may possess very high concentration of DDT which is harmful for man and make fish unfit for eating. These toxic substances also show adverse effect on photosynthesis activity of phytoplankton.
- Birds may die if they consume toxic water.
- Toxicity of water may influence the nervous system of animals.
- Various chemicals may cause cancer.
Q.5. Give an account on ex-situ conservation.
Ans. Ex-situ Conservation : The conservation of components of biological diverstiy outside their natural habitats is called ex-situ conservation. The institution for ex-situ conservation are forestry commission, botanical gardens, agricultural research centers. There are about 1500 botanical gardens of which 800 are active in plant conservation.
Field Gene Bank: Areas of land having growing perennials, long lived plants which are difficult to be conserved in nature. These take decades to produce seeds. Hence the area maintains widest range of genetic diversity.
- Requires large area.
- Difficulty in protection from natural disaster and diseases.
- Requires small space for storage.
- Economic method.
- Easier method for storage.
Storage of micro-propagation from plant sustained through tissue culture is also a valuable method. The tissue can be reared from pollen, spores and seed. Plantlets can be stored at low temperature for longer duration, i.e. Cryopresservation.
Q.6. What do you understand by “hotspots of biodiversity”? Name and briefly describe along with vital signs, the two hotspots of biodiversity that extend into India.
Ans. Hotspots of Biodiversity : Hotspots are areas that are extremely rich in species, have high endemism and under constant threat. Among the 25 hotspots of the world, two are found m India extending into neighbouring countries. These two hotspot in India are:
- Eastern Himalayas : Area comprises Nepal, Bhutan and neighbouring state of northern India. along with continuous sectors of Yunnan province in southwest China. They can be considered tropical forests since, they occur largely within climatic tropics. The Eastern Himalayas display an ultravaried topography, a factor that fosters species diversity and endemnism. It is believed that forest cover has reduced from 3,40,000 km2 to 1,10,000 km2. Despite this loss, north-eastern region is home to some botanical rarities. One of these in sapria Himalayana, a parasitic angiosperm that has been sighted only twice since 1836. Numerous primitive angiosperm families found in this region include msagnoliaceae, euptelea etc.
- Western Ghats : About 1,600 endemics (40% of total number of endemics) are found in a 17,000 km strip of forest along seaward side of western ghats in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Forest tracts upto 500 m in elevation, comparising 1/5 of entire forest expanse, are mostly evergreen while those in 500-1500 metres ranges are semi-evergreen. There are two main centres of diversity, agastyamali in hills and silent valley. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 4
Q.7. Define biosphere and name its sub-divisions.
Ans. Biosphere: It is an area in which life on earth is possible. It includes all living organisms and their physical environments. It is a combination of all ecosystems that exit on earth.
The biosphere has been divided into the following categories :
(i) Hydrosphere: It includes all the aquatic portions of earth like streams, rivers, ponds, oceans, and all water bodies.
(ii) Lithosphere : It includes the crust, the solid portion of earth like land masses, rocks, mountains, minerals of the earth.
(iii) Atmosphere : It forms a gaseous envelope over hydrosphere and lithosphere.
All living organisms require inorganic substances which they obtain from these sub-divisions, e.g, they get water from hydrosphere, obtain essential minerals from hydrosphere and lithosphere and gases like O2, CO2, N 2 etc. from atmosphere. The term biosphere was first used by Edward Suess (1957) According to Hutchinson (1970), biosphere is that part of the earth in which life exists (the envelope of life).
Q.8. What do you understand by hotspots?
Ans. Hot Spots : The biodiversity of a particular place when comes under threat, it is called hotspot or sensitive spot. Hotspot covers less than two per cent of the planet’s land surface but contains more than 50 per cent of its terrestrial biological diversity. In these hotspots the ecosystems are at greatest risk. Indian sub-continent has unique geographic portion, distinct physiographic, edatohic and climatic zone and gradients.
This subcontinent abodes a very rich and diverse flora and fauna with high percentage of endemism. Out of 25 most important global hotspot of biodiversity two are present in India, i.e., Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats.
Q.9. Give the names of five hotspots of India.
Ans. The names of five hotspots of India are given below:
- Western Ghats.
- Little Rann of Kachchh.
- Gir Forest
- Eastern Himalayas. id me r Woo
- Nilgiri Hills.
Q.10. Give the names of five hotspots of the world.
Ans. The names of five hotspots of the world are given below:
- Gulf of Guinea.
- North Indian Ocean.
- Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.
- Western Caribbean.
- Mountains of Central Asia.
Q.11. Describe carbon cycle.
- As CO2 of atmosphere.
- As carbonates in the rocks, in the earth’s crust.
- As carbon in fossil fuels like-coal and petroleum.
Fixation of Carbon
CO enters the green plants (photosynthesis) and then to various organisms of different trophic levels.
Release of Carbon
Carbon is released in the following manner:
- As CO2 during respiration.
- Decomposition of dead organic materials by microbes.
- Burning of wood and fossil fuels.
- By volcanic activity and dissolution of carbonate rocks.
Q.12. Differentiate between producers and consumers.
Q.13. What do you understand by Biodiversity Act of India 2002?
Ans. Biodiversity Act of India, 2002: The Biodiversity Act was passed by Indian parliament in 2002 and received assent of the President on 5th Feb. 2003. It has 12 chapters. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 4
This act is for the conservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of its components and fair and equal sharing of the benefits coming out of the use of biological resources, knowledge and for all other connected purposes.
Q.14. Give a list of some endangered animal species of India.
Ans. Some endangered animal species of India are as follows:
- Reticulated Python: Python reticulatus.
- Indian Rock Python: Python molurus.
- Water Monitor: Varanus salvator.
- Common Indian Monitor: Varanus bengalensis.
- Tortoise Shell Turtile: Eretmochelys imbricata.
- Black-Necked Crone: Grus nigricollis.
- Cheer Pheasant: Catreus wallichii.
- Western Tragopan : Tragopan melanocephalus.
- Likh Florican: Sypheotides indica.
- Great Pied Hornbill: Buceros bicomis.
- Great Indian Bustard : Ardeotis nigriceps.
- Nilgiri Tahr: Hemitragus hylocrius.
- Mouse Deer: Trigulus memmina.
- Four Horned Antelope : Tetracerus quadricornis.
- Wild Buffalo : Bubalus bubalus.
- Asiatic Wild Ass: Asinus hemionus khur. Hocheon
- One Horned Rhino: Rhinoceros unicornis.
Q.15. Write Name of some endangered plant species of India.
Ans. Some endangered plant species of India are as follows:
- Abies delavayi (Gymnosperm).
- Taxus baccata (Gymnosperm).
- Picea brachytyla (Gymnosperm).
- Psilatum nudum (Gymnosperm).
- Angiopteris erects (Pteridophyte).
- Adiandra griffithi.
- Vanilla piliferae.
- Rauwolfia serpentina.
- Nepenthes khasiana.
- Atropa acuminate.
- Saussurea bracteata.
- Coptis teeta.
Q.16. Name some countries whose symbols are based on animals or plants.
Ans. A few nations whose national emblems and symbols are based on animals or/and plants are as follows
- Australia: kangaroo
- Canada: white lily
- France: lily
- India: lion capital
- Ireland: shawrock
- Italy: white lily
- Japan: chrysanthemum
- Luxembourg: a lion with a crown
- Papua New Guinea: bird of paradise
- Sri Lanka: lion
- United Kingdom: rose
- Bangladesh: water lily
- Germany: Cornflower
Q.17. Role of media in Environmental Education. (2013)
Ans. Role of media in environmental education :
The special emphasis of this study is on the role of media in creating environmental awareness with the underlying concept of media being a very broad one. The different media sources considered can be categorized as follows:
- Mass media (e.g. radio, television, newspaper and magazines).
- Institutional media (e.g. school, government officials or village leaders).
- Traditional media (e.g, family members, other relatives, friends and neighbors, NGO work). BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 4
As a first explanation of environmental awareness modern mass media will be considered. It is still to be confirmed that the role of mass media is one of the most important factors underlying the knowledge of environmental problems. This can only be true on the conditions that first, mass media is accessible to large proportions of the population, second, are spending some time on environmental issues and third, people are interested in information on ecological issues provided by the media so that they view or listen to the corresponding programs as well as read newspaper articles or other written publications dealing with environmental issues. –
Second, representing the institutional media the importance of school education in creating environmental awareness and training environment friendly behavior will be examined. The aim is to find out if and to what degree and how successful knowledge on ecological issues is taught at schools.
And third factor being able to explain the level of environmental awareness might be traditional media, the social environment of a person. If discussions on environmental issues within the family or with friends. neighbours and colleagues take place quite often or even regularly this will probably influence a person’s awareness and behaviour in an environmental friendly way. The work of NGOs and the support they perceive by the Ministry of Environment & Forests will be considered, too.
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