BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 2
Q.1. Write an essay on water resources.
Ans. Water Resources: Water is the most important constituent of a living organism. It is widely used as a solvent, for irrigation, navigation, industrial use, electricity production, domestic use, etc. 97.3% is salt water and rest is fresh water, this 2.7% amounts to about 1.4 billion Km2 of water.
Water exists in solid, liquid and gas form. In solid state, it is found as frozen ice in polar regions as ice-caps at mountain peaks and in glaciers. In liquid form, it is present in oceans, lakes, rivers, streams and as groundwater. In gaseous form, water is found in the atmosphere as vapor. About 77.2% water is permanently frozen, 22.4% is groundwater and soil moisture 0.35% is found in wetlands and lakes and 0.01% in rivers and streams.
The total volume of groundwater found in underground reservoirs, called aquifers is 42.3x1010m. Nowadays 25% of the groundwater is being used by humans for various purposes. Water is mostly utilized in agriculture which amounts about 73% and grounds to pressure on groundwater. Excessive and uncontrolled use of groundwater is depleting aquifers, lowering the water level which may lead to Stalinisation waterlogging, alkalinization of soils. Water demand is directly related to industrial use, agriculture use, and population growth. The distribution of fresh water is not uniform in all countries of the world. The pattern of use of water also varies in different countries. Steps should be taken to store runoff water.
India receives about 3 trillion m3 of water from rainfall. This is highest in the world, but due to climatic changes and global Syllabus warming, rainfall is decreasing. It is a matter of great concern. Nowadays, many parts of India are facing drought-like situations. Fourteen major river systems such as Ganga, Narmada, Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari, Brahmaputra account for 85% surface flow and Share 83% of drainage basis. Out of the total annual precipitation, India utilized only 10%.
Due to deforestation, many regions like Kalahandi, parts of Orissa, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Karnataka face drought. The supply of drinking water is not adequate in many villages of India. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 2
The water is continuous moves through various pathways from oceans to the atmosphere from ice to the river, lakes, and oceans and from lakes, river, stream to oceans. Water also moves from lithosphere to biosphere. Water flows continuously between hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. This flow is called the hydrological cycle.
According to UNO reports 12 million people do not have sufficient drinking water. Every year 2.2 million people die due to the consumption of polluted water. About 70 million people will feel shortage of water by 2050.
Disputes between States
There are some disputes between the states due to water resources Theme conflicts in India are :
- Kaveri water dispute between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
- Some river dispute between U.P., M.P. and Bihar.
- Yamuna water dispute between U.P., Haryana, Delhi and Himachal Pradesh.
- Ravi-Beas dispute between Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan.
Management of Water Resources
Management of water is most important. Management of water resource points :
- Need for management of seawater because of oil and other pollutants of threats.
- No wastage or misuse of water.
- Pure water should be made available to everyone for various purpose
- Storage and distribution of water should be done scientifically,
- Stop the wastage of water from leaking taps and excessive irrigation.
- Public awareness needed for optimum use of water.
- Water should be treated by R.O, U-V, etc for drinking purpose.
- Purify municipal wastewater, domestic water and made it fit to use in agriculture and industry after removing toxic elements, pollutants, microbes and so on.
- Recharge groundwater.
- Develop technology to use sea water for drinking purpose. #1. Apply improved technologies to increase water storage capacity and groundwater.
Q.2. Give an account of forest resources. Or Write an essay on world forest resources.
Ans. Forest Resources: The term forest has been derived from the Latin word ‘foris’ meaning outside.
Forests constitute 90% of the global biomass. These are natural ecosystems dominated by the tree. About one-third of the world’s land surface is covered by forests, of which tropical forests constitute about 50%.
Importance of Forests
The forests are very important for us in the following ways:
- Protection of watersheds, catchments, and land against erosion.
- Regulate rainfall, humidity and temperature.
- Production of timber for buildings, fuel, bamboos, and minor forest products, like gums, resins, waxes, tanning materials, lac, beedi leaves, grasses, latex, fruits, essential oils, fibers etc.
- Reduction of noise.
- Reduction of pollution.
- Purification of air by converting CO2 into 0%, help in maintaining CO2/02 balance.
- Act as picnic resorts, sports, hiking, trekking, bird watching, wildlife watching.
- Provides raw materials for paper, rayon, hardboards, plywood, beedi patta, medicines etc.
- Regulative functions in absorption, the transformation of radiant energy into plant biomass.
- Regulates mineral nutrient cycles.
About 22.7% of the total land area of India is occupied by forests. In India, 1.5 million hectares of forests are lost every year. In Asia, 5 million hectares of forests are lost every year. India has lost 45 million hectares of good forest. The main factors for deforestation are-increase in human population and livestock, which results in an increase in demand of timber, fuelwood, grazing, construction of roads and mining activities. In India, wood is used as fuel, paper, etc. Indonesia has 61% of its land under forest, Brazil has 58% of land under forest. Govt. of India brought 42nd constitutional amendments Act 1976 thus :
48 A: Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife: the state shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.
51 A: To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wildlife and to have a comparison for living creatures.
Article 48 A is included in ‘Directive principles of state policy’ while Article 51A (g) is included in fundamental duties of an Indian citizen.
Minor Forest Products (MFP) are a source of economic development of tribals and other people. A a large number of people especially forest dwellers depend on the forest during drought and adverse climate conditions. Attempts are being made to undertake processing of MFP by tribals to provide good value. Tribals are also involved in the collection, processing of medicinal plants. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 2
The dams erected for irrigation and hydroelectric projects submerge large extent of forest land displacing the inhabitants of that region. It also causes enormous loss to flora and fauna of that region. Sardar Sarovar Project acclaimed 26466 acres of forest land, 27850 acres of irrigated land and 31775 acres of other lands.
Management of Forests: Following measures should be taken to manage the forests:
- Monitoring of the forest growth and depletion rate,
- Prevention from forest fires.
- Use of scientific methods for harvesting forest products.
- Strictly ban on unauthorized cutting of trees.
- Strict enforcement of forest laws.
- Adopting tree plantation and maintenance.
- Adopting social forestry for fuel, dry fodder, timber, fruit and so on. Minor Forest Products (MFP)
Products of high value
- Essential oils
Products of Low Value
- Soap nut
- Hill broom
- Mahua leaves
- Tendu leaves
- Marking nut
Q.3. Write an essay on the importance of forests. Or Describe the importance of forests to human life.
Ans. Forests: Forests are the land communities majorly of trees and other vegetation us with a closed canopy. Forests are regarded as any land managed for the diverse purpose of forces whether covered with trees, shrubs, climbers, llamas etc. or not.
The forests serve the human being in the following manner:
- Production: Timber for building material, cabinets, fuel, bamboos, secondary products like gums, resins, wake, tanning materials, lac, grasses etc.
- Protection: Protection of watersheds, catchments, and land against erosion.
- Recreation: Picnic resorts, sports, wildlife and bird watching.
- Industrial Development: Raw materials for paper, rayon, hardboard, plywood, gums, resins, fruits and medicines etc.
- Hygienic: Reduction of noise and pollution, purification of air by converting CO 2 to 02. 27% of the earth’s surface i.e. 3.4 billion hectares of land is covered by forests. India has only 19.47% of land covered by actual forest while Indonesia has 61% of land as forest. Forest are the major source of timber, wood, fuel etc. Forests guard against erosion of land, damage of watersheds, flood, and sedimentation. They provide shelter to wildlife.
Ecological Uses of Forests
- Protection of Land: Plant protects soil from drastic changes in temperature, the action of wind, the action of raindrops, holding soil, preventing landslides and making the soil spongy as well as fertile.
- Retention of Subsoil Water: Plant litter and humus prevent run-off, hold water like a sponge and allow percolation resulting in perennial fresh water through springs.
- Climate: Moderating and moistening effects.
- Frequency of Rainfall: Increase in frequency of rainfall makes atmospheric humidity high.
- Pollution: Forests reduce atmospheric pollution absorbing gases and collecting SPM.
- Shelter: They provide shelter to wild animals. Over 40 million tribals and villagers live in forests. The number of cattle grazing in forests is 200 million.
Q.4. Give an account of mineral resources.
Ans. Mineral Resources: The term mineral resources refers to a wide range of materials obtained from earth. Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic, crystalline solids having a definite composition and properties. Minerals come from earth’s crust. The evolution of civilization is linked with the gradual acquisition, the knowledge regarding the use of crude minerals, extraction, purification, mixing of metals to form alloys. In the early stone age, man used rocks to make various tools for hunting purpose. In 5000 B.C. copper was extracted, purified and utilized in various ways first time. Iron was discovered in 1500 B.C. and it is harder than copper. The modern machine culture is basically built upon of framework of steel. Nowadays aluminum is playing an important role in structural built-up. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 2
A variety of inorganic materials are in demand to fulfill the requirements of a present machine oriented culture. The main metals are iron, aluminum, copper, mercury, nickel, cadmium, tungsten, vanadium, molybdenum. Modern civilization also needs non-metallic materials like sand, gravel, clay, salt, cement, sulfur and by-products of petroleum.
Q.5. Write a short note on mineral resources.
Ans. Mineral Resources: Minerals are natural substances mined from the earth by man. Mineral resources include all organic and inorganic substances obtained from earth. Various minerals like copper, iron, coal, petrol, etc are necessary for industries and the development of our country. Man is using minerals since the dawn of civilization. First-of-all he used stone and stone implement for hunting and to construct pyramids and clay bricks to build residential houses. Later he learnt the use and manufacture of iron implements. Nowadays steel and iron are being used for the manufacture of automobiles, construction of houses, buildings, ships, machines, rail tracks, rail coaches, industrial equipment, research equipment, hospital equipment, agricultural equipment, etc.
The evolution of civilization is linked with gradual acquisition of the knowledge regarding the use of crude minerals, their extraction, purification, and mixing of metals for making alloys. Copper was the first metal which was extracted, purified and utilized in various works. In about 1500 B.C. iron was discovered. Crude iron is magnetite which possesses the magnetic property and guided earlier navigators to keep them on the right path. In modern time, aluminum is playing an important role in structural built-up.
Besides iron, copper, aluminum, some metals like, vanadium, mercury, nickel, cadmium are required as a catalyst in various industrial processes. Modern civilization also needs sand, gravel, clay, salt, cement, sulfur, stones and products and by-products of petroleum.
The eight elements which form about 99% of the earth’s crust are aluminum, oxygen, iron, sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium and silicon.
In India, copper deposits are found in Bihar and Rajasthan. Gold deposits are meager. Uranium-thorium is essential for atomic energy and is found in Rajasthan and Bihar. There are about 86,000 million coal reserves in India.
The petroleum reserves are located in the valleys of the Brahmaputra, deltas of Knavery, Krishna, Godavari, Mahanadi rivers, coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Orissa, offshore sites near Bombay, etc.
The oil deposits are found around the persian gulf. 60% of the world’s oil reserves are located in south-west Asia. The important oil-producing countries are Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, UAE, Russia. The largest consumer of oil is the USA. The USA possesses about 7% of the world’s total oil reserves.
Q.6. What do you mean by natural resources? Enumerate various natural resources.
Ans. Natural Resources: The term ‘resource’ means a source of supply that is generally held in reserve. In other words, natural resources are materials, which living organisms can take from nature for the sustenance of their life or any component of natural resources that can be utilized by man to promote his welfare. Natural resources can be a substance, an energy unit or natural process of the phenomenon, e.g. land, soil, water, forests, etc. Some of the resources such as soil, water, etc. are important components of the life-supporting system. Natural resources are not only sources of food, fodder, and shelter, they also provide recreational opportunities, solace and even inspiration to mankind.
- Inexhaustible Resources: These resources are present in unlimited quantity in nature and they are not likely to be exhausted by human activities. Some inexhaustible resources remain unaffected by human activities, while many others may show some changes in their quality. Solar energy, wind power, tide power, rainfall and even atomic energy are classified as inexhaustible resources.
- Exhaustible Resources: These resources have limited supply on the earth and are therefore liable to be exhausted if used indiscriminately. These resources are of two types : renewable and non-renewable.
(a) Renewable Resources: These resources have capacity to appear or replenish themselves by quick recycling, reproduction and replacement within a reasonable time. Soil, water and living beings (ie. plants, animals and microorganisms) are renewable resources.
(b) Non-renewable Resources: These resources lack the ability of recycling and replacement. The substances with a very long recycling time are also regarded as non-renewable resources.
Many biotic resources are non-renewable. Fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, and gas) and metals once extracted cannot be regenerated at the place of extraction. Biological species which have evolved in nature during the course of million years are considered as non-renewable. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 2
Q7. Write advantage and disadvantage of constructing dams.
Ans. Dams: Advantages and Disadvantages : Dams built on rivers, serves as artificial (man-made) lake that impounds huge amount of rain water. Whereas the storage of such a huge quantity of water is advantageous for different purpose, it is problematic too in many respects. The major benefits and problems of dams are enumerated below :
Advantages: Various favorable features of a dam are as follows :
- It assists in controlling the floods.
- It guarantees the irrigation during dry periods.
- It can be used for inland water navigation in case the dam is a part of mult-purpose river valley project.
- It makes hydroelectric power generation possible.
- It ensures a year-round water supply for different purposes.
- The transfer of water can be accomplished from an area of excess water to other areas of water scarcity, by means of canals.
- It protects the erosion of soil.
- It many be used to developed nurseries and picnic spots etc.
- It may be used to develop the fish resources.
Disadvantages: Various disadvantages of dam are:
- Its constructions cause submergence of a large area of land on the upstream side. This results in a huge loss of the is fertile field or human settlements.
- Enormous weight of stored water may trigger seismic activity.
- In case of an earthquake jolt, the dam may crack, causing havoc due to unleashed flood.
- Waste of substantial amount of water through seepage into porous rock beds and evaporation to atmosphere.
- Salinity of river water is increased in concentration of salt, after evaporation. This makes the downstream water non-consumable.
- Very heavy expenditure in construction and a huge loss in case of a crack or failure due to any reason.
Q.8. Describe the classification of energy resources.
Ans. Classification of Energy Resources: The energy resources can be classified in many ways, as given below :
On the Basis of Their Availability
- Primary Energy Resources: These are obtained directly from the environment. Their examples are:
- Fossil fuels such as coal, crude oil, natural gas etc.
- Nuclear fuels such as uranium, plutonium, thorium etc.
- Hydro (i.e. hydel or water) energy.
- Solar energy.
- Wind energy.
- Geothermal energy.
- Ocean energy such as tidal energy, wave energy,
- Biomass energy such as gobar gas.
- Hydrogen energy.
- Secondary Energy Resources: These do not exist in nature, rather they are derived from primary energy resources. The examples are as follows:
- Petrol, diesel, kerosene oil etc. which are derived from crude oil.
- Compressed natural gas (CNG), liquified petroleum gas (LPG) which are derived from natural gas.
- Plutonium, actinium etc. which are derived from uranium.
- Electrical energy based on coal, diesel, gas etc.
Q.9. Discuss ecological and economic importance of forests.
Ans. Importance of Forests : India has a rich flora and fauna, much of which is present in forests areas. Forests occupy a special place in life and thought of people. They form an important renewable natural resources. Forests ecosystem is dominated by trees, their species content varying in different parts of world. Forests contribute essentially to economic development of our country and civilization. Some chief products that forests supply are as follows:
- Wood Which is used as fuel.
- Raw materials for various industries such as pulp, paper, news prints, plywood, timber for furniture, toys, sports goods, boxes, boats, carts, bridges, buildings.
- Fodders for cattles, sheep, goats, camels and other animals.
- Bamboos are regarded as poor man’s timber and are used in rafters, scaffolding, roofing, basketry, cartwood and cottage. Industrially bamboos are used as a raw material in paper and rayon industry.
- Indian forests also supply minor forest products such as canes, gums, resins, medicines, insecticides, camphor, essential oils (e.g. rosha grasses, khas and sandal woods) cooling oils and spices. Tendu leaves are used as wrappers for beedis, soap-substitutes such as ritha and shikakai, sola pith and ornamental seeds rudraksha are important commercial products of forests. Lac, honey, wax, tusser or moga silk are obtained from forest insects. Feathers, horns, hides and ivory are also other significant forest products. For tribal people forests also provide food (tuber, roots, leaves fruits, meat from birds and animals).
Besides above discussed uses, forests are also a major factor of environmental concern, providing protection to wildlife, help in gaseous (i.e. CO2,02) cycles of atmosphere, tend to enhance local rainfall and water holding capacity of soil, maintain soil fertility, check soil erosion, landslides and silting and reduce flood havoc. Forests play an important role in reducing atmospheric pollution by collection suspended particulate matter and by absorbing CO2. Lastly forests have aesthetic and touristic values and serve as generation reserve for important species.
Q.10. Write a detailed note on uses of important minerals.
Ans. Uses of Some Important Minerals : Minerals are used for various purposes. Many of them are used for multi-purposes. Amongst them, the non-metallic mineral resources are predominantly used. They are commonly used in agriculture, defence transport, aviation, material and metallurgy, industrial and other sectors. Important minerals, their salient uses and other related details are depicted as ahead :
Q.11. What is climate change?
Ans. Climate Change : Population explosion has increased demand of fuel or wood through deforestation, soil-erosion and setting up of dams.
Every year, an additional 6 million hectare of productive land turns into a desert and more than 11 hectare of forests are destroyed. Use of fossil fuels increases, CO2 content in atmosphere resulting global warming and other industrial gases are depleting protective ozone layer, exposing life to increasing health hazards. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 2
Acid rain is destroying forests, lakes, productive soil and precious monuments. Toxic effluents of industrial and agricultural activities are polluting water bodies and disrupting complete food chains. Growing intensity of human activities are resulting in significant environmental risks that threaten to life on the planet. Given below are some of the changes in climate occurring as a result of environmental pollution :
- Global warming and green house effect.
- Acid rain.
- Depletion of ozone layer.
Q.12. Discuss with the help of case study, to confirm how big dams affect forest and tribal.
Ans. Big dams cause socio-economic effects due to large displacement of local inhabitant from their homeland and their shifting to other areas including urban areas almost as refugees. Major river valley projects that have generated controversy are :
- Sardar Sarovar Project, Gujarat.
- Tehri Dam Project, Uttrakhand.
- Narmada Sagar Project, M.P.
Dams cause following negative effects :
- Productive units and sources of income are totally lost.
- Society networks are destroyed.
- Loss of community life.
- People are relocated to environment where their productive skills has no utility.
- Forests are destroyed to accommodate dams and change course of water.
- Salinity of river water refers to an increase in concentration of salt, after evaporation. This makes the downstream water non-consumable.
- Very heavy expenditure in construction and a huge loss in case of a crack or failure due to any reason.
Q.13. What is the importance of natural resources?
Ans. Natural resources are the components of environment which are inherently created by nature for supporting life. Natural resources are available in atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere in the form of air, water, soil, minerals, forests, food, animals, plants, energy etc. These resources are very essential for sustaining life on earth.
Q.14. Describe the sources of energy and their importance.
Ans. Main Source of Energy: Sun provides heat and light for plants to grow. Chemical energy is energy stored in chemicals such as fuel. Even these fuels such as coal and petroleum were made from plants which absorbed the sun’s energy millions of years ago. Apart from direct solar energy, the sun’s energy can be seen in different ways-wind power, water power, tidal power, fossil fuels, nuclear energy etc.
The prehistoric man who existed about 50,000 years ago was a wild man, who lived in caves in jungles and in conditions similar to other animals. He wandered from place to place in search of food and shelter. The main source of energy at this disposal was his own internal energy. This is called Muscular Energy. Of course, even today this form of energy. Muscular energy is utilised by human is obtained beings. In running jumping lifting objects etc. man uses this energy Muscular from the food we eat.
The first external source of energy was fire, which was used for heating, lighting and cooking. The fuel used for getting fire was initially wood. Later coal and peat became major sources. Over a period of time man learnt to harness different forms of energy to increase his ability to do work. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 2
Importance of Energy
- To Carry Out Natural Movements: to carry out natural movements and other physiological functions- like respiration, digestion, circulation etc. we get energy from the food we consume.
- For Domestic Purposes: Heat energy is required for domestic purposes like for cooking food and heating water, electrical energy for lights, fans, TV, radio etc.
- For Industrial use: Electrical energy is needed for industrial use. This energy is used for illuminating work places, for heating furnaces and running electric motors and various other machines. Fuels such as coal, furnace oil, bagasse and wood are also used for heating purposes. Electromagnets are used in cranes for lifting and shifting heavy loads of iron.
- For Agriculture: Man and animal power is needed for agricultural activities. Tractors, threshing and winnowing machines are now used very extensively. They require fuel energy. The pumps used for drawing water from wells or canals run on electricity or on diesel.
- For Transport: In early days, man used muscular energy for travelling from on place to another, Later he harnessed powerful animals like bullocks, house donkeys etc. which he used for drawing carriages. Today man uses fast-moving vehicles like aeroplanes, buses, cars, trucks etc., which run on fuel energy. He also uses electric trains which require electrical energy and steam cars that runs on steam energy.
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