BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 1
Q.1. Explain the importance of environmental education in the present day context.
Give the importance of environmental studies in modern age.
Ans. Importance of Environmental Education : Environment belongs to all and is thus important for all, whatever be occupation or age of a person, he or she will be affected by environment and will also affect environment by his or her deeds. Main points of importance of environmental education are as follows:
- Environmental education is important for economy and welfare of human society.
- In this age of science and technology, eco-friendly technology or eco-technology is need of the hour, because it promotes blending of traditional knowledge and technology with modern technologies. It can be achieved only through proper environmental education.
- It helps us in careful handling issues like pollution menace over exploitation of natural resources, food scarcity and sustainable development.
- Excess use of agrochemicals has degraded environment. and has disturbed ecological balance. Environmental education helps us to find ways and means to maintain ecological balance.
- Environmental has demonstrates how man can deride benefits from environment without destroying it
- Environmental education trains us to conserve our fast depleting natural resources.
- Environmental has been a source of happiness for man and time has come to preserve this happiness for man by imparting environmental education.
- Environmental education helps in inculcating attitudes and values, conductive to environment protection and understanding of inter-dependence of nature and man.
- It creates and increases civil sense and an awareness of economic, political and ecological inter-dependence of modern world.
- It helps to understand different food chains and the ecological balance in nature.
Q.2. Discuss classification of environment briefly.
Define environment. Discuss four segments of environment in brief.
Ans. Environment: The environment is a Greek word which means ‘surrounding. It is a complex of many things such as light, temperature, water, air, soil etc, which surrounds an organism. The green fields, trees, shrubs, ponds, lakes, rivers, forests, sky and the various systems existing in the nature all of constitute the environment.
Classification of Environment : Environment is considered as a composite term for the condition in which organism lives. It includes both biotic and abiotic substances, energy and forces, e.g. temperature. Light, water, air, soil and other organisms. |Environment can be defined in many ways some of its commonly used definition are as follows:
(a) It is the totality of all social, biological and physical or chemical individually as well as collectively that compose the nature and man-made surroundings.
(b) It refers to total sum of conditions which surround man at a given point in space and time.
(c) It is the representative of physical components of the earth wherein man is an important factor influencing his environment.
- Atmosphere: The atmosphere is the protective blanket of gases surrounding the earth sustains life on earth and saves it from the hostile environment of outer space. It absorbs most cosmic rays from outer space and a major portion of the electromagnetic radiation from the transmits only ultraviolet, visible, near infrared radiation and radio waves filtering ou tissue-damaging ultraviolet radiation.
The atmosphere plays a key role in maintaining the heat balance on the earth, through absorption of infrared radiation emitted by the sun and re-emitted from the earth. The major components of the atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen, while the minor components are argon, carbon dioxide and some trace gases.
The atmosphere is the source of oxygen and carbon dioxide. It also supplies nitrogen with nitrogen-fixing bacteria and ammonia-manufacturing plants, utilise to yeild chemically bound nitrogen essential for life. Furthermore, it is a vital carrier of water from oceans to land, as part of the hydrological cycle.
- Hydrosphere : The hydrosphere includes all types of water resources such as oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, streams, reservoirs, glaciers, polar ice caps and ground water. About 97% of the earth’s water is in the oceans, where the high salt content does not permit its use for human consumption. About 2% of the water resources are locked in the polar ice caps and glaciers, while only 1% is available as fresh water for human consumption and other uses.
The major uses of water are for irrigation (30%), thermal power plants (50%), while other uses are domestic (7%) and industrial consumption (12%). BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 1
- Lithosphere: This is the outer mantle of the solid earth, consisting of minerals occurring in the earth’s crust and the soil. The earth’s crust comprises of a complex mixture of minerals, organic matter, air and water. The soil is the most important part of the lithosphere.
- Biosphere : This denotes the realm of living organisms and their interactions with the environment. viz., atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Both the biosphere and environment are influenced considerably by each other. Thus, the oxygen and carbon dioxide level of atmosphere depends entirely on the plant kingdom. As a matter of fact, green plants alone responsible for the accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere, through photosynthesis and are the original atmosphere having been devoid of oxygen. The biological world, in general, is related with energy flows in the environment and water chemistry.
Q.3. Describe the need of public awareness about environment.
Ans. Unthoughtful and unabated consumption of natural resources for a development of science and technology, transport and communication, agriculture
led consumption of natural resources for different purpose such as material and energy, comfort and pleasure has depleted environmental resole
communication, agriculture and industry, systems like air, water and soil, and has disturbed delicate ecological balance.
Thus, to improve deteriorated environment and to avoid further pollution, human beings have a great responsibility. For that, they have to be conscious about environment-friendly needs. Individuals are to be involved in this process of improving environment.
As beginning of life on earth was about 2.6 billion years ago, numerous species of organisms have evolved, flourished and vanished. Their fossils are yet to be observed to record their existence in historical past. Gradually in stages, a very large number of organisms of different shapes and sizes, colours and kinds and modes of living were evolved. Amongst them mankind became dominant species because of his brain. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 1
Because of vast capabilities, multi-activity, performance and genuine or non-genuine eagerness, mankind has been responsible for disturbing the environment. Sometimes, it may be for the sake of comfort by using air-conditioners and refrigerators, that cause ozone layer depletion and sometimes for the sake of curiosity for excellence such as by developing rockets, missiles, aeroplanes etc.
But, now the people are to be awakened and made aware to protect global environment by exercising following actions:
- By not cutting trees and using timber for aesthetic pleasure such as decoration of drawing rooms and houses etc.
- By not extracting unnecessarily and exhaustively the natural resources such as underground water, minerals etc.
- By preserving greeneries on a vast area of land.
- By not harnessing too much energy such as from burning of fossil fuels.
- By formulating and obeying the moral codes meant for achieving a better environment.
- By maintaining conventional environment within seas and oceans.
Finally, people should be approached to understand, conserve and manage environment and its resources. Lastly we should not forget that preservation of environment is cricial for survival of living beings on earth.
Q.4. What is the importance of environmental studies? Explain in brief.
Point out objectives of environment education.
Ans. Importance of Environmental Studies : Since ancient times, the environment (that is the nature) has been held in high esteem. Importance of environmental studies lies in the fact that by being well-acquainted with nature one can lead a healthy, spiritual and long life. Such studies help us to maintain good environment all through in our vicinity. The requirements of a good environment are given as follows: BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 1
- Pure Air : The air should be pure and free from undesired ingredients viz. harmful gases, suspended matters etc. Generally the following limits of various ingredients are acceptable to maintain quality of air
(a) Carbon monoxide (CO) =1000 ug/m3
(b) Sulphur dioxide (SO2) = 30 ug/m3
(c) Nitrogen oxide (NO 2 ) = 30 ug/m2
(d) Suspended Particualte Matter (SPM)=100 ug/m3
2. Pure Water: Drinking water should be free from bacteria and other pollutants. Generally, the water containing following ingredients are acceptable for human consumption:
(a) Colour: transparent
(b) Taste : tasteless
(c) pH value=7
(d) Hardness – 19 ppm (-200 to 300 mg/litre)
(e) Turbidity =50 to 10 ppm on silica scale
(f) Odour intensity=threshold number should not exceed 1
(g) Acidity =4 ppm
3. Pure Food : Food should normally be free from the bad and effects of fertilizers, pesticides, chemicals, dirty water and adulteration.
4. Health : Importance of a pollution-free environment can also be judged by following illustrations. If the environment is polluted the health of mankind/living organism will and they may be affected by critical diseases as given below :
(a) Air-borne diseases :
(i) Asthma, cough, bronchitis due to SO 2.
(ii) Guiddiness, defects of nervous system, gametotoxicity due to Pb
(iii) Cancer, lung and kidney problems, unconsciousness due to CO.
(iv) chronic fibrosis, emphysema, bronchopneumonia due to NO and NO.
(v) nasal cavity, bronchitis, respiratory problems due to suspended particles
(vi) eye watering, red eyes, breathing trouble due to smoke.
(b) Water-borne disease :
(i) Cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever due to bacterial infections.
(ii) Hepatitis, poliomyelitis due to viral infections.
(iii) Amoebic dysentery due to protozoal infections.
0.5. Write a short note on “Industrial Development and Environmental Degradation”.
Ans. Pollution is the product of our scientific achievements being applied for the improvement of human facilities. Environmental pollution has become the biggest problem to the human race on this planet. Pollution is adding impurity to our environment; the environment consists of earth water air plants and animals. Pollution in our environment will hamper the core of existence of man and nature. Due to deforestation earth is becoming warmer; if this continues our earth will become a desert or will be covered with sea and will cause destruction of mankind.
The existing tendency of industrialization and urbanization in developing countries has an enormous impact on natural and man-made environments. Pollution sources increase with the development of cities and cause contamination of air, water, and soil. Lack of urban environmental planning and management strategies has led to better concern for upcoming urban expansion. Unprecedented growing rates of global human population and urban development make tremendous stress on local, regional, and global air and water quality. A necessity to better understanding of the factors that mediate the interactions between urbanization and variations of environmental quality eixsts. Land use modification, urbanization, and infrastructure developments specifically could destruct the natural environment and are threating the biodiversity. Tools and measures must be adapted to evaluate and remedy the potential effects on biodiversity caused by human activities and developments. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 1
Environmental Degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil: the destruction of ecosystem and the extinction of wildlife It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Environmental degradation is one of the ten threats officially cautioned by the High level in Panel of the United Nations. The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction deres environmental degradation as “The reduction of the capacity of the environment to meet social and ecological objectives, and needs.” Environmental degradation is of many types. When natural habitats are destroyed or natural resources are depleted, the environment is degraded. Efforts to counteract this problem include environmental protection and environmental resources management.
Q.6. Describe the factors which affect the environment.
Ans. Factor affecting Environment: There are many different factors that affect climate around the world. It is the varying influence of these factors that lead to different parts of the Earth experiencing differing climates. The most important natural factors are :
- Distance from the sea.
- Ocean currents.
- Direction of prevailing winds.
- Shape of the land (known as “relief or ‘topography’).
- Distance from the equator.
- The El niño phenomenon.
It is now widely accepted that human activity is also affecting climate, and that the impact is not the same everywhere. For example, changes appear to be happening faster near the poles than in many other places. In this tutorial we will look at some of these factors in more detail.
- Distance from the Sea (Continentality) : The sea affects the climate of a place. Coastal areas are cooler and wetter than inland areas Clouds form when warm air from inland areas meets cool air from the sea. The centre of continents are subjected to a large range of temperatures. In the summer, temeratures can be very hot and dry as moisture from the sea evaporates before it reaches the centre of the land mass.
- Ocean Currents: Ocean currents can increase or reduce temperature. The main ocean current that affects the UK is the Gulf Stream.
The Gulf Stream is a warm ocean current in the North Atlantic flowing from the Gulf of Mexico, northeast along the U.S coast, and from there to the British Isles.
The Gulf of Mexico has higher air temperature than Britain as it is closer to the equator. This means that the air coming from the Gulf of Mexico to Britain is also warm. However, the air is also quite moist as it travels over the Atlantic ocean. This is one reason why Britain often receives wet weather.
The Gulf Stream keeps the west coast of Europe free from ice in the winter and, in the summer, warmer than other places of a similar latitude.
- Direction of Prevailing Winds: Winds that blow from the sea often bring rain to the coast and dry weather to inland areas. Winds that blows to Britain from warm inland areas such as Africa will be warm and dry. Winds that blows to britain from inland areas such as central Europe will be cold and dry in winter. Britain’s prevailing (i.e. most frequently experienced) winds come from a south westerly direction over the Atlantic. These winds are cool in the summer, mild in the winter and tend to bring wet weather.
- The Shape of the Land (‘relief) : Climate can be affected by mountains. Mountains receive more rainfall than low lying areas because as air is forced over the higher ground it cools, causing moist air to condence and fall out as rainfall.
The higher the place is above sea level the colder it wll be. This happens because as altitude increases, air becomes thinner and is less able to absorb and retain heat. That is why you may see snow on the top of mountains throughout the year.
- Distance from the Equator: The distance from the equator affects the climate of a place. At the poles, energy from the sun reaches the Earth’s surface at lower angles and passes through a thicker layer of atmoshphere than at the equator. This means the climate is cooler further from the equator. The poles also experience the greatest difference between summer and winter davla in the summer there is a period when the sun does not set at the poles; conversely the pole experience a period of total darkness during winter. In contrast, daylength varies little at the equator. BBA Environmental Studies Questions Unit 1
El Niño: El Niño which affects wind and rainfall patterns, has been blamed for droughts and a in countries around the Pacific Rim. El Niño refers to the irregular warming of surface water in Pacific. The warm water pumps energy and moisture into the atmosphere, altering global win rainfall patterns. The phenomenon has caused tornadoes in Florida, smog in Indonesia, and forest in Brazil.
El Niño is Spanish for ‘the boy child’ because it comes about the time of the celebration of the birth of the Christ Child. The cold counterpart to El Niño is known as La Niño, Spanish for the sin child’, and it also brings with it weather extremes.
Human Influence: The factors above affect the climate naturally. However, we cannot forget the influence of humans on our climate. Early in the human history our effect on the climate would have been quite small. However, as populations increased and trees were cut down in large numbers, so our influence on the climate increased. Trees take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. A reduction in trees will therefore have increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
The Industrial Revolution, starting at the end of the 19th Century, has had a huge effect on climate. The invention of the motor engine and the increased use of fossil fuels have increased the amount of carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas – more on the later) in the atmosphere. Thus number of trees being cut down has also increased, reducing the amount of carbon dioxide that its taken up by forests.
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